In-vitro and invasive in-vivo studies have reported relatively independent motion in the medial and lateral forefoot segments during gait. However, most current surface-based models have not defined medial and lateral forefoot or midfoot segments. The purpose of the current study was to determine the reliability of a 7-segment foot model that includes medial and lateral midfoot and forefoot segments during walking gait. Three-dimensional positions of marker clusters located on the leg and 6 foot segments were tracked as 10 participants completed 5 walking trials. To examine the reliability of the foot model, coefficients of multiple correlation (CMC) were calculated across the trials for each participant. Three-dimensional stance time series and range of motion (ROM) during stance were also calculated for each functional articulation. CMCs for all of the functional articulations were ≥ 0.80. Overall, the rearfoot complex (leg–calcaneus segments) was the most reliable articulation and the medial midfoot complex (calcaneus–navicular segments) was the least reliable. With respect to ROM, reliability was greatest for plantarflexion/dorsiflexion and least for abduction/adduction. Further, the stance ROM and time-series patterns results between the current study and previous invasive in-vivo studies that have assessed actual bone motion were generally consistent.
Stephen C. Cobb, Mukta N. Joshi and Robin L. Pomeroy
Neil E. Bezodis, Aki I.T. Salo and Grant Trewartha
Two-dimensional analyses of sprint kinetics are commonly undertaken but often ignore the metatarsal-phalangeal (MTP) joint and model the foot as a single segment. The aim of this study was to quantify the role of the MTP joint in the early acceleration phase of a sprint and to investigate the effect of ignoring the MTP joint on the calculated joint kinetics at the other stance leg joints. High-speed video and force platform data were collected from four to five trials for each of three international athletes. Resultant joint moments, powers, and net work at the stance leg joints during the first stance phase after block clearance were calculated using three different foot models. Considerable MTP joint range of motion (>30°) and a peak net MTP plantar flexor moment of magnitude similar to the knee joint were observed, thus highlighting the need to include this joint for a more complete picture of the lower limb energetics during early acceleration. Inclusion of the MTP joint had minimal effect on the calculated joint moments, but some of the calculated joint power and work values were significantly (P < .05) and meaningfully affected, particularly at the ankle. The choice of foot model is therefore an important consideration when investigating specific aspects of sprinting technique.
Frank E. DiLiberto, Deborah A. Nawoczenski and Jeff Houck
The implementation of multisegment foot modeling approaches has advanced understanding of foot function during healthy and pathological gait. Specifically, multisegment foot modeling approaches have helped characterize midfoot function and direct clinical care for conditions that affect the midfoot
Wataru Kawakami, Makoto Takahashi, Yoshitaka Iwamoto and Koichi Shinakoda
behavior of the foot affected by hallux valgus remains poorly understood. Recently, several multisegment foot models have been proposed to describe detailed foot motion. These models could provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating foot problems using clinical gait analysis. 14 Several
Kirsten Tulchin, Michael Orendurff, Stephen Adolfsen and Lori Karol
Multisegment foot models provide researchers more-detailed information regarding foot mechanics compared with single rigid body foot models. Previous work has shown that walking speed significantly affects sagittal plane ankle motion. It is important to distinguish changes in intersegment foot mechanics following treatment that are due to clinical intervention versus those due to walking speed alone. Foot and ankle kinematics were collected on 24 adults walking at 5 speeds. Significant differences were seen at the ankle using a single rigid body foot model, as well as at the hindfoot and forefoot using a multisegment foot model, with all motions exhibiting a shift toward plantar flexion and decreased stance time with increasing speed. When evaluating foot mechanics using a multisegment foot model across groups or conducting intrasubject comparison over time/treatments, it is imperative that walking speed be accounted for or controlled.
Fabian Mager, Jim Richards, Malika Hennies, Eugen Dötzel, Ambreen Chohan, Alex Mbuli and Felix Capanni
stiffness compared with running in conventional shoes. Whereas Park et al 8 found no influence of a stiffened forefoot shoe on agility time and lower limb kinematics while playing badminton. However, these authors used a single segment foot model, which did not allow for the consideration of
Emily E. Gerstle, Kristian O’Connor, Kevin G. Keenan and Stephen C. Cobb
several invasive in-vivo, in-vitro, and surface-based multi-segment foot models have reported significant movement in the midfoot and forefoot during level walking, 13 – 15 very little research has examined distal foot kinematics during step descent. One study that did examine distal foot motion
The authors and publisher regret that incorrect data were reported in JAB Volume 28, No. 2 (May 2012), on pages 222–227, in the article titled “Modeling the Stance Leg in Two-Dimensional Analyses of Sprinting: Inclusion of the MTP Joint Affect Joint Kinetics,” by Neil E. Bezodis, Aki I.T. Salo, and Grant Trewartha. An error in the data-processing script affected some of the calculated joint kinetics. The MTP plantar flexor moments were calculated correctly and are large enough to warrant consideration for a more complete picture of the energetics of sprinting. However, the correct data revealed that choice of foot model has relatively little effect on the calculated kinetics at other joints with the only meaningful differences being present in the ankle joint power and work data. As of November 1, 2012, the online version has been fully corrected and is available at http://journals.humankinetics.com/jab-back-issues/ jab-volume-28-issue-2-may.
Kevin Deschamps, Giovanni Matricali, Maarten Eerdekens, Sander Wuite, Alberto Leardini and Filip Staes
been challenging because of a number of technical limitations. However, more recently, multi-segment kinetic foot models have been developed to tackle this challenge, but so far, only in walking. 21 – 25 In these models, the critical subdivision of the total GRF into the relevant foot segments was
Frank E. DiLiberto and Deborah A. Nawoczenski
attention regarding midfoot region power generation. 2 – 4 The application of multisegment foot modeling to measure midfoot region power has accelerated since its inception. 5 Although different approaches have been used, midfoot power generation during the push-off phase of gait can now be considered as