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Kreg G. Gruben, Lynn M. Rogers, and Matthew W. Schmidt

Control of the force exerted by the foot on the ground is critical to human locomotion. During running on a treadmill and pushing against a fixed pedal, humans increased foot force in a linear manner in sagittal plane force space. However, for pushes against a moving pedal, force output was linear for some participants but slightly curved for others. A primary difference between the static and dynamic pedaling studies was that the dynamic study required participants to push with varying peak effort levels, whereas a constant peak effort level was used for the fixed pedal pushes. The present study evaluated the possibility that force direction varied with level of effort. Seated humans pushed against a fixed pedal to a series of force magnitude targets. The force direction varied systematically with effort level consistent with the force path curvature observed for dynamic pedaling.

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Figen Govsa, Gkionoul Nteli Chatzioglou, Simin Hepguler, Yelda Pinar, and Ozden Bedre

The human foot complex is a multijoint mechanism that determines the critical interaction between the lower limb and the ground during locomotion. 1 – 3 Any injury, lesion, or neuromuscular disorder of this key element of the lower limb drastically affects the normal interaction between muscles

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Laura A. Verbruggen, Melissa M. Thompson, and Chris J. Durall

Clinical Scenario Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders of the foot. 1 – 5 Initial treatment of plantar fasciitis is typically conservative and may include heel padding, steroid injections, night splinting, calf-stretching, ultrasound, foot orthoses, and taping

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Caleb D. Johnson and Irene S. Davis

The relationship between measures of foot arch function and musculoskeletal injuries in recreational runners and military personnel has been reported in several previous studies. 1 – 6 Much of this work has focused on the height of the medial longitudinal arch, often characterized by the arch

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Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David, and Ricardo M. Lima

Gait abnormalities have been consistently related to falls. 6 During ambulation, the foot is the only source of direct contact with the ground. Therefore, any factor that might disrupt normal foot function is likely to impair postural stability and, as a consequence, increase the risk of falls

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Banu Unver, Emin Ulas Erdem, and Eda Akbas

-bearing activities. Pes planus causes impaired plantar load distribution, excessive stress in the foot, ankle, and knee joints, and compensatory internal rotation of the hip joint. Common lower-limb pathologies such as hallux valgus, plantar fasciitis, tibialis posterior dysfunction, tarsal tunnel syndrome, and

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Douglas W. Powell, Benjamin Long, Clare E. Milner, and Songning Zhang

The medial longitudinal arch plays a major role in determining lower extremity kinematics. Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamics of the arch structure in response to load. The purpose of this study was to examine arch function in high- and low-arched feet during a vertical loading condition. Ten high- and ten low-arched females performed five trials in a sit-to-stand exercise. Ground reaction force (1200 Hz) and three-dimensional kinematics (240 Hz) were collected simultaneously. The high-and low-arched athletes had no differences in vertical deformation of the arch. High-arched participants were less everted than the low-arched athletes; furthermore, the high-arched athletes had smaller mid-forefoot eversion excursions. Differences between the high-arched and low-arched athletes occur through and motion at the mid-forefoot joint.

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Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker, and Lindsay Warren

been validated for measuring dorsiflexion in the long sitting position, with the knee in terminal extension and the inclinometer aligned with the fifth metatarsal of the foot being measured 4, 5 ; however, this procedure, as well as the Clinometer Smartphone Application™, has not yet been validated for

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Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C. Frederick, and Dirk De Clercq

The classification of foot contact patterns, ie, rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot contact patterns, has proven relevant due to a possible relation with running economy or performance. 1 , 2 However, this classification is particularly relevant because of its relationship with the intensity of

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Lauren C. Benson, Stephen C. Cobb, Allison S. Hyngstrom, Kevin G. Keenan, Jake Luo, and Kristian M. O’Connor

Trips are one of the greatest causes of falls and are the result of insufficient clearance between the foot and floor. 1 Both low foot clearance and high foot clearance variability are suspected to increase the risk of falling. 2 The local minimum approach is a common way to determine foot