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Keith A. Stern and Jinger S. Gottschall

The purpose of our study was to determine if altering the insoles within footwear or walking barefoot, as an attempt to increase or decrease cutaneous stimuli, would improve dynamic balance during a hill-walking task. We hypothesize that compared with foam insoles or iced bare feet, textured insoles or bare feet will result in greater speeds, longer step lengths, narrower step width, shorter stance time, and less tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOL), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) activity during key gait cycle phases. Ten, healthy college students, 5 men and 5 women, completed the protocol that consisted of level walking and downhill transition walking in five different footwear insole or barefoot conditions. During level walking, conditions with the hypothesized greater cutaneous stimuli resulted in greater step length, which relates to a more stable gait. In detail, the texture insole condition average step length was 3% longer than the regular insole condition, which was 5% longer than the ice condition (p < .01). The same signals of increased stability were evident during the more challenging downhill transition stride. Step length during the barefoot condition was 8% longer than the ice condition (p < .05) and step width during the regular footwear condition was 5% narrower than the foam condition (p = .05). To add, during the preswing phase of level walking, TA activity of the textured insole condition was 30% less than the foam insole. Although our data show that footwear conditions alter gait patterns and lower leg muscle activity during walking, there is not enough evidence to support the hypothesis that textured insoles will improve dynamic balance as compared with other footwear types.

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Daniel J. Brinkmann, Harald Koerger, Albert Gollhofer, and Dominic Gehring

ground. 4 These braking and propulsive impulses are required to decelerate and reaccelerate the body toward the new direction and are transmitted via the footwear to the ground. Thus, it is imperative for the player that his unique piece of equipment, that is, his soccer boots, supports him in executing

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Ben Langley, Mary Cramp, and Stewart C. Morrison

rearfoot eversion compared with neutral shoes. However, as is common within footwear biomechanics, these studies 11 , 12 placed markers on the shoe. Discrepancies between the motion of the foot and the shoe have been reported, 13 – 15 and as such, the findings of studies using shoe-based markers should

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Lydia M. Kocher, Jonisha P. Pollard, Ashley E. Whitson, and Mahiyar F. Nasarwanji

Footwear is the primary interface between the worker and the work environment and plays a critical role in worker safety. 1 Safety toe footwear is often used to protect workers from the hazards typically encountered in work environments, such as mining, and is thereby required personal protective

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Daniel Crago, John B. Arnold, and Christopher Bishop

preserve RE has not been investigated. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the instantaneous effects of 2 different designs of foot orthoses: (1) “flexible-arched” orthoses with reduced arch thickness and (2) standard thickness orthoses, on RE compared with footwear only in

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Brittany R. Crosby, Justin M. Stanek, Daniel J. Dodd, and Rebecca L. Begalle

Key Points ▸ Movement screens are commonly used in athletic populations. ▸ Footwear has previously been shown to affect an individual’s stability. ▸ Footwear has no effect on Functional Movement Screen ® scores. A popular screening method used throughout sports medicine, specific to analysis of

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Michael Buchecker, Stefan Wegenkittl, Thomas Stöggl, and Erich Müller

shortly afterward Romkes ( 2008 ), observed higher EMG activities, especially of the tibialis anterior (TA), and a clear increase of COP displacements in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction in bipedal stance using footwear equipped with a rounded sole and a soft heel pad (i.e., Masai Barefoot Technology

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Wing-Kai Lam, Winson Chiu-Chun Lee, Wei Min Lee, Christina Zong-Hao Ma, and Pui Wah Kong

footwear bending stiffness. 1 , 16 In brief, for the running vertical jump (Figure  2a ), participants approached from a 5-m distance and performed a maximum hand reach after taking off with the left foot on the force plate (Kistler, Winterthur, Switzerland). Participants took off with the left leg for a

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Grace Smith, Mark Lake, and Adrian Lees

The metatarsophalangeal joint is an important contributor to lower limb energetics during sprint running. This study compared the kinematics, kinetics and energetics of the metatarsophalangeal joint during sprinting barefoot and wearing standardized sprint spikes. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether standard sprinting footwear alters the natural motion and function of the metatarsophalangeal joint exhibited during barefoot sprint running. Eight trained sprinters performed maximal sprints along a runway, four sprints in each condition. Three-dimensional high-speed (1000 Hz) kinematic and kinetic data were collected at the 20 m point. Joint angle, angular velocity, moment, power and energy were calculated for the metatarsophalangeal joint. Sprint spikes significantly increase sprinting velocity (0.3 m/s average increase), yet limit the range of motion about the metatarsophalangeal joint (17.9% average reduction) and reduce peak dorsiflexion velocity (25.5% average reduction), thus exhibiting a controlling affect over the natural behavior of the foot. However, sprint spikes improve metatarsophalangeal joint kinetics by significantly increasing the peak metatarsophalangeal joint moment (15% average increase) and total energy generated during the important push-off phase (0.5 J to 1.4 J). The results demonstrate substantial changes in metatarsophalangeal function and potential improvements in performance-related parameters due to footwear.

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Mario A. Lafortune

Miniature pressure sensors and high-speed video were used to assess the lateral support and stability of court footwear during in vivo performance of lateral side-stepping moves. Two distinct types of court footwear construction were evaluated and were found to differ by approximately 100% and 200% in lateral support and stability, respectively. The heel control index that combined both parameters revealed differences exceeding 425%. A comparison of shoes that differed only in one construction feature produced similar trends. These overall results suggest that the combined high-speed video/pressure approach allows high discrimination of footwear rearfoot control properties during in vivo simulated playing conditions. The specific experimental results suggest that footwear designed for court sports exhibits considerable differences in foot support and stability. Furthermore, it was found that some construction features could improve these properties in court footwear.