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Julien Jacquier-Bret, Arnaud Faupin, Nasser Rezzoug and Philippe Gorce

The aim of this study was to propose a new index called Postural Force Production Index (PFPI) for evaluating the force production during handcycling. For a given posture, it assesses the force generation capacity in all Cartesian directions by linking the joint configuration to the effective force applied on the handgrips. Its purpose is to give insight into the force pattern of handcycling users, and could be used as ergonomic index. The PFPI is based on the force ellipsoid, which belongs to the class of manipulability indices and represents the overall force production capabilities at the hand in all Cartesian directions from unit joint torques. The kinematics and kinetics of the arm were recorded during a 1-min exercise test on a handcycle at 70 revolutions per minute performed by one paraplegic expert in handcycling. The PFPI values were compared with the Fraction Effective Force (FEF), which is classically associated with the effectiveness of force application. The results showed a correspondence in the propulsion cycle between FEF peaks and the most favorable postures to produce a force tangential to the crank rotation (PFPI). This preliminary study opens a promising way to study patterns of force production in the framework of handcycling movement analysis.

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Sheng Li, Frederic Danion, Mark L. Latash, Zong-Ming Li and Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky

One purpose of the present study was to compare indices of finger coordination during force production by the fingers of the right hand and of the left hand. The other purpose was to study the relation between the phenomena of force deficit during multifinger one-hand tasks and of bilateral force deficit during two-hand tasks. Thirteen healthy right-handed subjects performed maximal voluntary force production tasks with different finger combinations involving fingers of one hand or of both hands together. Fingers of the left hand demonstrated lower peak forces, higher indices of finger enslaving, and similar indices of force deficit. Significant bilateral effects during force production by fingers of both hands acting in parallel were seen only during tasks involving different fingers or finger groups in the two hands (asymmetrical tasks). The bilateral deficit effects were more pronounced in the hand whose fingers generated higher forces. These findings suggest a generalization of an earlier introduced principle of minimization of secondary moments. They also may be interpreted as suggesting that bilateral force deficit is task-specific and may reflect certain optimization principles.

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Paul Comfort, Thomas Dos’Santos, Paul A. Jones, John J. McMahon, Timothy J. Suchomel, Caleb Bazyler and Michael H. Stone

strength and maximal isometric force production. 4 , 5 In addition to demonstrating the importance of a high maximal force capacity (ie, a high maximal force production), the ability to rapidly produce high levels of force is paramount during athletic tasks, as there is a limited duration for the

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Danny M. Pincivero, Rachael R. Polen and Brittany N. Byrd

The ability to predict force production from an isolated muscle (or muscle group) has been examined using a range of different anthropometric measurement modalities. 1 – 5 Perhaps the most widely used techniques to derive accurate estimates of muscle cross-sectional area and volume is magnetic

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Aisha Khan and Stacey L. Gorniak

Previous studies of fine motor control have focused on the ability of participants to match their grip force production to a visually provided template. We investigated differences exhibited in pinch force control during variable force production templates, including sine-, sawtooth-, and square-wave templates. Our results indicate that increased force requirements are associated with increased error rates and a noisier frequency spectrum, consistent with previous studies. Our results also indicate that visual feedback, in the form of template shape, directly affect pinch force production features and motor unit firing patterns, despite the use of consistent baseline force requirements, amplitude changes, and visual signal frequency. This suggests that CNS modulation of motor unit responses can be triggered by basic changes in visual feedback unrelated to force requirements. The potential implications of error compensation based on this study due to aging are also discussed.

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Roger O. Kollock, Bonnie Van Lunen, Stacie I. Ringleb and James Onate

The ability to produce force rapidly and to maintain it is essential to sports performance. Although rapid force production and endurance are indispensable characteristics of optimal health and performance, assessing these qualities of strength is difficult because of clinician time constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine if peak force is a predictor of rate of force production and strength endurance. The results indicated peak force is a predictor of rate of force development, but not strength endurance. Clinicians should assess both maximum strength and endurance to gain a more complete picture of lower extremity strength deficits.

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Iris F. Kimura, LouAnne M. Jefferson, Dawn T. Gulick and R. David Coll

The purpose of this study was to investigate intratester and intertester reliability when using the Chatillon and MicroFet hand-held dynamometers (HHDs) to measure isometric force production of the wrist extensors, elbow flexors, ankle dorsiflexors, and knee extensors. Twelve subjects participated, with each joint tested four times with each HHD. Intratester and intertester intraclass con-elation coefficients were measured for both devices separately and between the devices- Results indicated that the HHDs were more reliable when used by a single examiner who had been properly trained in their use. Reliability of the HHDs appears to be affected by both the magnitude of the force produced by the subject and the examiner's ability to resist the force. There was no correlation between examiner's stature and consistent force production values. Caution should be taken when interpreting data obtained from different testers or different HHDs. The same clinician should use the same HHD for successive tests to yield the most reliable data.

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Simon R. Goodman, Mark L. Latash, Sheng Li and Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky

This study involved an optimization, numerical analysis of a network for two-hand multi-finger force production, analogous in its structure to the double-representation mirror image (DoReMi) network suggested earlier based on neurophysiological data on cortical finger representations. The network accounts for phenomena of enslaving (unintended finger force production), force deficit (smaller force produced by a finger in multi-finger tasks as compared to its single-finger task), and bilateral deficit (smaller forces produced in two-hand tasks as compared to one-hand tasks). Matrices of connection weights were computed, and the results of optimization were compared to the experimental data on finger forces during one- and two-hand maximal force production (MVC) tasks. The network was able to reproduce the experimental data in two-hand experiments with high accuracy (average error was 1.2 N); it was also able to reproduce findings in one-hand multi-finger MVC tasks, which were not used during the optimization procedure, although with a somewhat higher error (2.8 N). Our analysis supports the feasibility of the DoReMi network. It suggests that within-a-hand force deficit and bilateral force deficit are phenomena of different origins whose effects add up. Is also supports a hypothesis that force deficit and enslaving have different neural origins.

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Ritva S. Taipale, Jussi Mikkola, Ari T. Nummela, Juha Sorvisto, Kai Nyman, Heikki Kyröläinen and Keijo Häkkinen


To examine acute responses of force production and oxygen uptake to combined strength (S) and endurance-running (E) loading sessions in which the order of exercises is reversed (ES vs SE).


This crossover study design included recreationally endurance-trained men and women (age 21−45 y; n = 12 men, 10 women) who performed ES and SE loadings. Force production of the lower extremities including countermovement-jump height (CMJ) and maximal isometric strength (MVC) was measured pre-, mid-, and post-ES and -SE, and ground-reaction forces, ground-reaction times, and running economy were measured during E.


A significant decrease in CMJ was observed after combined ES and SE in men (4.5% ± 7.0% and 6.6% ± 7.7%, respectively) but not in women (0.2% ± 8.5% and 1.4% ± 7.3% in ES and SE). MVC decreased significantly in both men (20.7% ± 6.1% ES and 19.3% ± 9.4% SE) and women (12.4% ± 9.3% ES and 11.6% ± 12.0% SE). Stride length decreased significantly in ES and SE men, but not in women. No changes were observed in ground-reaction times during running in men or women. Performing S before E caused greater (P < .01) oxygen uptake during running in both men and women than if E was performed before S, although heart rate and blood lactate were similar between ES and SE.


Performing S before E increased oxygen uptake during E, which is explained, in part, by a decrease in MVC in both men and women, decreased CMJ and stride length in men, and/or an increase in postexercise oxygen consumption.

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Stacey L. Gorniak, Marcos Duarte and Mark L. Latash

We explored possible effects of negative covariation among finger forces in multifinger accurate force production tasks on the classical Fitts’s speed-accuracy trade-off. Healthy subjects performed cyclic force changes between pairs of targets “as quickly and accurately as possible.” Tasks with two force amplitudes and six ratios of force amplitude to target size were performed by each of the four fingers of the right hand and four finger combinations. There was a close to linear relation between movement time and the log-transformed ratio of target amplitude to target size across all finger combinations. There was a close to linear relation between standard deviation of force amplitude and movement time. There were no differences between the performance of either of the two “radial” fingers (index and middle) and the multifinger tasks. The “ulnar” fingers (little and ring) showed higher indices of variability and longer movement times as compared with both “radial” fingers and multifinger combinations. We conclude that potential effects of the negative covariation and also of the task-sharing across a set of fingers are counterbalanced by an increase in individual finger force variability in multifinger tasks as compared with single-finger tasks. The results speak in favor of a feed-forward model of multifinger synergies. They corroborate a hypothesis that multifinger synergies are created not to improve overall accuracy, but to allow the system larger flexibility, for example to deal with unexpected perturbations and concomitant tasks.