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Daniel A. Marinho, Tiago M. Barbosa, Victor M. Reis, Per L. Kjendlie, Francisco B. Alves, João P. Vilas-Boas, Leandro Machado, António J. Silva and Abel I. Rouboa

The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of finger spread on the propulsive force production in swimming using computational fluid dynamics. Computer tomography scans of an Olympic swimmer hand were conducted. This procedure involved three models of the hand with differing finger spreads: fingers closed together (no spread), fingers with a small (0.32 cm) spread, and fingers with large (0.64 cm) spread. Steady-state computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed using the Fluent code. The measured forces on the hand models were decomposed into drag and lift coefficients. For hand models, angles of attack of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°, with a sweep back angle of 0°, were used for the calculations. The results showed that the model with a small spread between fingers presented higher values of drag coefficient than did the models with fingers closed and fingers with a large spread. One can note that the drag coefficient presented the highest values for an attack angle of 90° in the three hand models. The lift coefficient resembled a sinusoidal curve across the attack angle. The values for the lift coefficient presented few differences among the three models, for a given attack angle. These results suggested that fingers slightly spread could allow the hand to create more propulsive force during swimming.

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Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura and Hiroaki Hobara

unilateral or bilateral transtibial (below-knee) amputees or transfemoral (above-knee) amputees. Several studies demonstrated that individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation have asymmetric modulation of joint kinetics, 1 ground reaction forces (GRFs), 2 , 3 and related stride kinematics

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Richard E. Debski, Shon P. Darcy and Savio L-Y. Woo

Quantitative data on the mechanics of diarthrodial joints and the function of ligaments are needed to better understand injury mechanisms, improve surgical procedures, and develop improved rehabilitation protocols. Therefore, experimental and computational approaches have been developed to determine joint kinematics and the in-situ forces in ligaments and their replacement grafts using human cadaveric knee and shoulder joints. A robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system is used in our research center for the evaluation of a wide variety of external loading conditions to study the function of ligaments and their replacements; it has the potential to reproduce in-vivo joint motions in a cadaver knee. Two types of computational models have also been developed: a rigid body spring model and a displacement controlled spring model. These computational models are designed to complement and enhance experimental studies so that more complex loading conditions can be examined and the stresses and strains in the soft tissues can be calculated. In the future, this combined approach will improve our understanding of these joints and soft tissues during in-vivo activities and serve as a tool to aid surgical planning and development of rehabilitation protocols.

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Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla and Slobodan Jaric

maximum power capacity of an individual, a wide range of resistive forces should be employed to identify the optimum resistive force. 3 , 4 This procedure not only makes the test both long lasting and prone to fatigue, but it also opens the problem of differences in reliability of the obtained outcomes

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Yumeng Li, He Wang and Kathy J. Simpson

. 16 Assessing tibiofemoral contact forces has been suggested as an essential approach to understand the initiation and progression of knee injuries and diseases. 18 Computer-simulated musculoskeletal models are often used to estimate tibiofemoral contact forces during various movements. 19 , 20

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David R. Mullineaux, Clare E. Milner, Irene S. Davis and Joseph Hamill

The appropriateness of normalizing data, as one method to reduce the effects of a covariate on a dependent variable, should be evaluated. Using ratio, 0.67-nonlinear, and fitted normalizations, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ground reaction force variables and body mass (BM). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 40 female subjects running at 3.7 ± 0.18 m·s–1 (mass = 58 ± 6 kg). The explained variance for mass to forces (peak-impact-vertical = 70%; propulsive-vertical = 27%; braking = 40%) was reduced to < 0.1% for mass to ratio normalized forces (i.e., forces/BM1) with statistically significantly different power exponents (p < 0.05). The smaller covariate effect of mass on loading rate variables of 2–16% was better removed through fitted normalization (e.g., vertical-instantaneous-loading-rate/BM0.69±0.93; ±95% CI) with nonlinear power exponents ranging from 0.51 to 1.13. Generally, these were similar to 0.67 as predicted through dimensionality theory, but, owing to the large confidence intervals, these power exponents were not statistically significantly different from absolute or ratio normalized data (p > 0.05). Further work is warranted to identify the appropriate method to normalize loading rates either to mass or to another covariate. Ratio normalization of forces to mass, as predicted through Newtonian mechanics, is recommended for comparing subjects of different masses.

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Matej Supej and Hans-Christer Holmberg

This study examined whether gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation in slalom skiing. 3D kinematical measurements were performed over two runs on the same slope in a WC slalom competition with two different gate setups: 1) open gates (OG) and 2) open gates with a delayed gate (DG). Using the arithmetic mean of the skis’ turn radii (R AMS) the slalom turns were divided into 1) initiation phase (R AMS > 15m) and steering phase (R AMS < 15m). The results show differences between OG and DG regarding: 1) the absolute center of gravity’s (CG) velocity, 2) absolute acceleration, 3) CG turn radii and R AMS, 4) ground reaction forces (F) and 5) energy dissipation during skiing (all p < .05). In both gate setups the highest F and the highest energy dissipation were present in the steering phase, whereas the correlation between R AMS and energy dissipation was low (OG: r = .364 and DG: r = .214, both p < .001). In summary, compared with plain open gates, an additional delayed gate prolonged the turn radii and decreased energy dissipation in the beginning of the initiation phase, despite the fact that the relative frequency of occurrence of the highest energy dissipation was higher in DG.

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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio

14 , 16 and are not suitable for the prediction of medial contact force in new subjects. Musculoskeletal models can estimate knee joint contact forces; however, the computational expense has limited their use in real-time biofeedback. van den Bogert et al 17 created a full-body model capable of

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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind and L. Joakim Holmberg

compared to standing, and as a consequence the lumbar joint reaction forces increase. 6 After long periods of lifting or a flexed posture of the spine, the stretching of the viscoelastic structures in the spinal region reduces the proprioceptive function of the mechanoreceptors. 7 Reduced proprioception

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Ryu Nagahara, Yohei Takai, Miki Haramura, Mirai Mizutani, Akifumi Matsuo, Hiroaki Kanehisa and Tetsuo Fukunaga

in SL is caused by increases in height and/or relative vertical impulse. GRFs during the acceleration phase of sprinting largely change as propulsive forces decrease, and braking and vertical forces increase ( 14 ). Moreover, the difference in maximal speed results from the preceding difference in