In modern societies there is strong belief in scientific progress, but, unfortunately, a parallel partial regress occurs because of often avoidable mistakes. Mistakes are mainly forgetting, erroneous theories, errors in experiments and manuscripts, prejudice, selected publication of “positive” results, and fraud. An example of forgetting is that methods introduced decades ago are used without knowing the underlying theories: Basic articles are no longer read or cited. This omission may cause incorrect interpretation of results. For instance, false use of actual base excess instead of standard base excess for calculation of the number of hydrogen ions leaving the muscles raised the idea that an unknown fixed acid is produced in addition to lactic acid during exercise. An erroneous theory led to the conclusion that lactate is not the anion of a strong acid but a buffer. Mistakes occur after incorrect application of a method, after exclusion of unwelcome values, during evaluation of measurements by false calculations, or during preparation of manuscripts. Co-authors, as well as reviewers, do not always carefully read papers before publication. Peer reviewers might be biased against a hypothesis or an author. A general problem is selected publication of positive results. An example of fraud in sports medicine is the presence of doped subjects in groups of investigated athletes. To reduce regress, it is important that investigators search both original and recent articles on a topic and conscientiously examine the data. All co-authors and reviewers should read the text thoroughly and inspect all tables and figures in a manuscript.
Colin D. Howell
Jennifer D. Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray and Brian E. Saelens
Background: Although the active transportation (AT) indicator received an F grade on the 2016 US Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, this AT assessment excluded public transportation. An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play Study was to assess youth AT, including public transportation, among Washington, DC area children in relation to parental perceptions of neighborhood built environment (BE) variables. Methods: Questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children aged 7–12 years. AT to school (ATS) was assessed with the question: “In an average school week, how many days does your child use each of the following ways to get to and from school? (a) Walk; (b) Bike; (c) Car; (d) Bus or Metro.” Parental perceived BE data were obtained through questionnaire items, and logistic regression was conducted to determine if BE variables were associated with youth ATS. Results: The sample included 144 children (50% female; average age 9.7 years; 56.3% white; 23.7% African American; 10.4% Asian American). Over 30% used ATS-public transportation 5 days per week, and nearly 13% used ATS-walking daily. Parental perceived BE variables significantly predicted youth ATS-walking and ATS-public transportation. Conclusions: ATS-public transportation is common among Washington, DC area youth, and parental perceptions of BE can significantly predict ATS.
Jimmy Sanderson, Blair Browning and Annelie Schmittel
College athletes are active on a variety of social-media platforms. As a result, most athletic departments require them to participate in social-media education. Although this practice is becoming more prominent, little research has explored how college athletes perceive such training. This case study explored college athletes’ social-media use and their perceptions about social-media education. Semi structured interviews of 20 college athletes at a Division I university were conducted. Using social-cognitive theory as a framework, analysis revealed that while participants expressed a desire for social-media education, they indicated that most of the messages they receive about social media tend to be forgettable. Consequently, athletic departments need to take a more refexive approach to social-media education that incorporates college athletes’ feedback to optimize this instruction.
Peter R.E. Crocker, Darryl R. Holowachuk and Kent C. Kowalski
This study assessed the feasibility of the Tritrac-R3D motion sensor over a 7-day period with 79 children in Grades 4–8. Eight sets of data were lost due to instrument breakdown or data downloading software problems. Despite daily telephone reminders and school visits, most participants reported problems with wearing the motion sensors, including forgetting to put the sensor on, physical discomfort, involvement in aquatics, public embarrassment, and not being allowed to wear the sensors during organized sport. The results also showed that the Tritrac scores were strongly correlated with Caltrac scores (r = .86) but were not significantly correlated to a 7-day interview recall (PAR) and a 7-day self-report of activity (PAQ-C). The two self-report measures were moderately related. These findings question the viability of the Tritrac to assess typical physical activity over extended periods in this population.
A new form of sporting settler homonationalism emerged in the Pride Houses at the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics. For the first time ever, Pride Houses were set up where gay and lesbian supporters watched and celebrated the Olympic events. Drawing on poststructuralism, queer and settler colonial studies, the paper analyzes how the Pride Houses were based on settler colonial discourses about participation and displacement. A settler discourse about First Nations and Two-Spirit participation in the Pride Houses allowed gay and lesbian Canadian settlers to both remember and forget the history of settlement. Another settler discourse took for granted the displacement of Two-Spirit youth from their community center and Indigenous people from their traditional territories in order for the Olympics and the Pride Houses to take place. The paper suggests that queering settler politics in sport means confronting, rather than disavowing, colonialism and challenging homonational forms of gay and lesbian inclusion in sport mega- events.
Craig A. Williams
In 2017, considerable attention has been paid by researchers on early sports specialization for youth athletes. Issues related to injury, burnout, and talent development to name a few have been debated, particularly when contrasted against other opposing youth development approaches, such as a multisport approach. The increasing professionalization of young athletes, a particular concern of this author, is coupled with the ensuing physical and mental pressures on these youngsters, as highlighted by the 2 highlighted publications in this commentary. Moreover, the financial costs to parents to support talented youngsters lead me to conclude that we must not treat them as “mini-adult athletes.” Trying to predict too far into the sporting future of a 9- or 10-year athlete can lead us to forgetting that they are just a 9 year, who typically wants to play, have fun, and be with their friends. Embarking on concentrated training programs, endless travel for tournaments, and an overemphasis on winning can be detrimental to participation rates as shown by recent data in the United States. Therefore, the challenge for researchers in elite youth sports is to ensure that practices we pursue with our young charges promote their health and well-being and that sports is for the benefit of the athlete and not the other way around.
Tessa M. Pollard and Cornelia Guell
We assessed the quality of data on physical activity obtained by recall from Muslim women of South Asian origin, and the feasibility of using accelerometer-based physical activity monitors to provide more objective measures of physical activity in this group.
In this largely qualitative study, 22 British Pakistani women were asked to wear accelerometers (the GT1M Actigraph and/or the Sensewear Armband) for 4 days, provided 2 24-hour recalls of activities, and were interviewed about their experiences with the monitors.
Women reported spending most of their time in housework and childcare, activities which generated the majority of recorded bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, women had difficulty in recalling the timing, and assessing the intensity, of these usually unstructured activities. A significant minority of accelerometer datasets were incomplete and some women reported either forgetting to wear the acceler-ometer or finding it intrusive.
Questionnaires are unlikely to provide an accurate assessment of physical activity in this group of women. This suggests that accelerometer data will be preferable. However, collecting sufficient data for large-scale studies using activity monitors in this population will be challenging.
NATA Professional Development Center is Always Open With 2019 being a reporting year, don’t forget to visit the NATA Professional Development Center (PDC) to earn CEUs. Although the deadline is Dec. 31, the PDC is open year-round and offers a wide range of courses on topics you encounter in your
“Greatest Ever: Eternity, Forgetting, and Obsolescence,” is a discussion of how we as both sport fans and the media in particular seem to build up our heroes, tear them down, and then forget them (except for a few). Grano does a great job of analyzing the phenomenal Usain Bolt and his amazing dominance of