, non-formal and formal learning environments to provide a holistic education and development. Sport is an umbrella term for a broad range of activities not unlike teacher education, which has multiple disciplines. Using education as an example, it is individual disciplines that are exploring signature
Julia Walsh and Fraser Carson
Koon Teck Koh, Wenxiang Foo, Goken Sakamoto and Adrian Low
The demand for certified sports coaches in Singapore is high, especially from the schools and private sectors. This trend is in line with the significant global growth of the vocation of sports coaching (Taylor & Garratt, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to provide an informal review of the state of coaching and coach education in Singapore, by addressing three main themes: (1) provide an overview of the evolution of the Singaporean coaching system since the late 1990s, (2) describe examples of identified ground up initiatives from various stakeholders within the coaching ecosystem and (3) draw conclusions from existing literature and provide suggestions on how coach education systems can be further developed. The foundation of the current coaching system was established in the late 1990s with the introduction of the National Coaching Accreditation Program (NCAP) and it is still the benchmark for the coaching practice in Singapore today. The basic NCAP is broken down to a theory and technical component which is administered by the Singapore Sports Council (SSC) and the National Sports Associations (NSAs) respectively. The SSC had embarked on various initiatives over the years to ensure that more Singaporeans have access to quality coaching.
Jamie Araya, Andrew Bennie and Donna O’Connor
The purpose of this study was to enrich our understanding of formal coach education settings. We investigated how coaches developed knowledge during a postgraduate tertiary coach education course. We also explored coaches’ perceptions of changes they made to their coaching attitudes, behaviours, skills, and practices as a result of their studies. Semistructured interviews1 were conducted with 17 performance coaches. Results revealed that coaches developed knowledge through rich learning situations that were relevant to their coaching context. Furthermore, the three types of knowledge (professional, interpersonal and intrapersonal; Côté & Gilbert, 2009) were fostered in an environment that was socially constructed through a Community of Practice. Coaches felt they were better equipped to develop athlete performance as a result of the knowledge gained through the course. The findings reinforce the importance of developing formal coach education that is learner-centred, provides diverse learning experiences, and embraces informal learning concepts when embedded in formal learning contexts.
François Rodrigue, Pierre Trudel and Jennifer Boyd
Multiple actors and roles are now recognized and promoted to support the development of coaches. Personal coaching is an emerging industry in many professional fields yet remains insignificant in sport coaching. The purpose of this study was to document and assess the value of a 12-month collaborative action research in which a high-performance rugby coach, with the support of a personal learning coach, aimed to learn from her coaching practice. This research was operationalized using an appreciative inquiry framework. Personal coaching was conducted according to the principles of narrative-collaborative coaching. Data collection included interviews, video observation, audio recordings of coaching conversations, notes from phone calls, and email exchanges. Results showed that this partnership created a safe and challenging learning space where different coaching topics were addressed, such as reflective practice, leadership, and mental preparation. A deductive analysis of the debriefing interview was completed using the value creation framework developed by Wenger and colleagues. This analysis indicated that the high-performance coach’s relationship with the personal learning coach enabled the development of five types of value: immediate, potential, applied, realised, and transformative. Therefore, it is suggested that narrative-collaborative coaching can complement existing formal and non-formal learning activities.
Patricia Gaion, Michel Milistetd, Fernando Santos, Andressa Contreira, Luciane Arantes and Nayara Caruzzo
Coaching positive youth development (PYD) represents a challenge for many participation and high-performance coaches across the globe, including in Brazil. Coach education has been acknowledged as a formal learning context that may help prepare coaches to effectively foster PYD outcomes and provide high-quality developmental experiences for athletes across different sport contexts. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe the key concepts and existing guidelines for coaching and coach education in Brazil, and provide context-specific recommendations for coach education to include PYD materials. Coaching in Brazil includes a long preparation period that includes diversified opportunities for coach learning. However, there are some discrepancies between the objectives and outcomes prioritized by governing bodies and sport organizations and how learning contexts are framed. In other words, although PYD is considered to be a necessary endeavor, it is not explicitly included in any coach education program. Moving forward, we provide several recommendations, through a bottom-up approach, in order to embed PYD within the Brazilian sport system.
Lori A. Gano-Overway and Kristen Dieffenbach
to formal learning situations (e.g., coach certification programs, HEIs). Further, Gilbert, Côté, and Mallett ( 2006 ) documented that successful high school coaches spent many more hours engaged in coaching practice compared to formal learning situations, highlighting a gap between the act of
Pierre Lepage, Gordon A. Bloom and William R. Falcão
relevant for the present study is the framework proposed by Coombs and Ahmed ( 1974 ), which classifies learning into formal, nonformal, and informal modes. Formal learning opportunities include large-scale coach education programs where coaches are passive observers and receive knowledge from a more
Marco Catarino Espada Estêvão Correia and Rachael Bertram
categorized into three different avenues in which coaches gain knowledge: formal, non-formal, and informal. Nelson and colleagues described formal learning contexts as those which are delivered by specialists, require the participants to demonstrate prerequisites in order to meet admission guidelines, present
Justine B. Allen and Colleen Reid
conferences. These non-formal learning situations are organized activities offered to specific subgroups on topics of a particular interest ( Nelson et al., 2006 ; Trudel et al., 2010 ). Similar to formal learning situations, the organization and content is typically designed by someone other than the
Jun-Hyung Baek, Emily Jones, Sean Bulger and Andrea Taliaferro
of the study was to explore in-service physical educators’ technology integration learning experiences across three formal learning situations (undergraduate and graduate PETE program and in-service professional development) and perceptions of these experiences. Research questions guiding the study