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Samuel Wood, David Richardson, and Simon Roberts

within the United Kingdom, including bicyle motorcross (BMX), mountain biking, cycle-cross, road, track, and cycle speedway. At the time of writing, BC’s formal education pathway consists of four “Levels.” The first, Level 1, is for assistant coaches. The second, Level 2, is a generic coaching

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Rui Resende, Pedro Sequeira, and Hugo Sarmento

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of coaching and coaching education in Portugal. In Portugal, sport coaching is traditionally considered a part-time vocation. There has been a growing concern of the Portuguese authorities to increase the standards of quality for sport coaching. Following the 1974 revolution there were profound alterations in how coaching and coach education are regulated. The legislative changes in coach education occurred mainly due to the harmonisation of the qualifications in the European Union. More recently, the responsibility for coach certification has moved from the different sports federations to a national sports organization that has created four grades of coach education. Coach education in all grades requires a general and a specific curricular component as well as an internship supervised by an accredited mentor. The academic formation is now well regulated. However, some sport federations are resistant to this academic certification process because they fear losing their exclusive control of their coach certification.

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Jamie Araya, Andrew Bennie, and Donna O’Connor

The purpose of this study was to enrich our understanding of formal coach education settings. We investigated how coaches developed knowledge during a postgraduate tertiary coach education course. We also explored coaches’ perceptions of changes they made to their coaching attitudes, behaviours, skills, and practices as a result of their studies. Semistructured interviews1 were conducted with 17 performance coaches. Results revealed that coaches developed knowledge through rich learning situations that were relevant to their coaching context. Furthermore, the three types of knowledge (professional, interpersonal and intrapersonal; Côté & Gilbert, 2009) were fostered in an environment that was socially constructed through a Community of Practice. Coaches felt they were better equipped to develop athlete performance as a result of the knowledge gained through the course. The findings reinforce the importance of developing formal coach education that is learner-centred, provides diverse learning experiences, and embraces informal learning concepts when embedded in formal learning contexts.

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Steven A. Henkel and Neal F. Earls

A theoretical framework was developed to frame research on the moral thought and actions of teachers and students. The moral judgment of K-12 physical education teachers (n = 47) was investigated to determine their characteristic types of moral judgment, the amount of variability in moral judgment, and how this variability was distributed with regard to gender, teaching level, formal education, amount of coaching experience, type of coaching involvement, and coaching aspiration. Moral judgment was assessed according to Rest’s (1979b) Defining Issues Test. The largest differences were revealed for the coaching related subgroups. The total sample mean P (principled reasoning) score of 37.8% was lower than the normative mean for comparison groups in other studies employing the DIT.

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Larissa R. Galatti, Yura Yuka Sato dos Santos, and Paula Korsakas

Sport coaching in Brazil is a regulated profession that requires higher education qualifications. A degree in physical education (PE) is mandatory since 1998 for those who aspire to work as coaches in the country, which has led universities and professors to play a key role in developing coaches through formal education. Through a personal narrative approach, we—a professor and a PhD candidate—wrote this paper with the purpose of sharing our pathways and reflections in implementing a learner-centred teaching (LCT) approach in an undergraduate coaching course in Brazil, both acting as coach developers (CDs). From a personal and professional growth perspective, as CDs, we acknowledge the relevance of offering such practical experiences along with reflection and peer sharing as crucial steps for practitioners to improve CD expertise in the higher education setting. By reflecting on the potential of a LCT approach in higher education, we demonstrate how LCT strategies can enhance opportunities for student-coaches to gain exposure to meaningful practical coaching situations as a way to better develop their coaching skills within the university environment.

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Bradley J. Cardinal, Eugene A. Park, MooSong Kim, and Marita K. Cardinal

Background:

This study provides an update on the amount and type of physical activity education occurring in medical education in the United States in 2013. It is the first study to do so since 2002.

Methods:

Applying content analysis methodology, we reviewed all accessible accredited doctor of medicine and doctor of osteopathic medicine institutions’ websites for physical activity education related coursework (N = 118 fully accessible; 69.41%).

Results:

The majority of institutions did not offer any physical activity education–related courses. When offered, they were rarely required. Courses addressing sports medicine and exercise physiology were offered more than courses in other content domains. Most courses were taught using a clinical approach. No differences were observed between MD and DO institutions, or between private and public institutions.

Conclusions:

More than one-half of the physicians trained in the United States in 2013 received no formal education in physical activity and may, therefore, be ill-prepared to assist their patients in a manner consistent with Healthy People 2020, the National Physical Activity Plan, or the Exercise is Medicine initiative. The Bipartisan Policy Center, American College of Sports Medicine, and the Alliance for a Healthier Generation called for a reversal of this situation on June 23, 2014.

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Katelyn Barnes, Lauren Ball, and Ben Desbrow

Personal trainers are well placed to provide basic nutrition care in line with national dietary guidelines. However, many personal trainers provide nutrition care beyond their scope of practice and this has been identified as a major industry risk due to a perceived lack of competence in nutrition. This paper explores the context in which personal trainers provide nutrition care, by understanding personal trainers’ perceptions of nutrition care in relation to their role and scope of practice. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 15 personal trainers working within Australia. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. All personal trainers reported to provide nutrition care and reported that nutrition care was an important component of their role. Despite this, many were unaware or uncertain of the scope of practice for personal trainers. Some personal trainers reported a gap between the nutrition knowledge they received in their formal education, and the knowledge they needed to optimally support their clients to adopt healthy dietary behaviors. Overall, the personal training context is likely to be conducive to providing nutrition care. Despite concerns about competence personal trainers have not modified their nutrition care practices. To ensure personal trainers provide nutrition care in a safe and effective manner, greater enforcement of the scope of practice is required as well as clear nutrition competencies or standards to be developed during training.

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Susan Paudel, Alice J. Owen, Stephane Heritier, and Ben J. Smith

was 51.8 (8.7) years. Approximately 63% of the participants were female. More than half (58%) did not have formal education, 59% were involved in unpaid employment, 89% were currently married, and 53% belonged to advantaged ethnic groups. The geographic distribution of the study participants in the

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Julia Walsh and Fraser Carson

decontextualized approach that fails to replicate the complex nature of coaching ( Cronin & Lowes, 2016 ; Cushion et al., 2010 ). Many trades, crafts and professions have a similar history to current coach education practice and have gradually moved to a formal education delivery, a professional apprenticeship

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Jorge Mota, Rute Santos, Manuel João Coelho-e-Silva, Armando M. Raimundo, and Luís B. Sardinha

://www.pordata.pt ). About 18% of children and adolescents, enrolled in formal education, participate in school sports clubs (Portuguese Ministry of Education – unpublished data). Active Play INC For this indicator no grade was assigned, because there is little available literature related to active play and leisure