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Tomoyuki Matsuo, Glenn S. Fleisig, Naiquan Zheng, and James R. Andrews

Elbow varus torque is a primary factor in the risk of elbow injury during pitching. To examine the effects of shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt angles on elbow varus torque, we conducted simulation and regression analyses on 33 college baseball pitchers. Motion data were used for computer simulations in which two angles— shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt—were systematically altered. Forty-two simulated motions were generated for each pitcher, and the peak elbow varus torque for each simulated motion was calculated. A two-way analysis of variance was performed to analyze the effects of shoulder abduction and trunk tilt on elbow varus torque. Regression analyses of a simple regression model, second-order regression model, and multiple regression model were also performed. Although regression analyses did not show any significant relationship, computer simulation indicated that the peak elbow varus torque was affected by both angles, and the interaction of those angles was also significant. As trunk tilt to the contralateral side increased, the shoulder abduction angle producing the minimum peak elbow varus torque decreased. It is suggested that shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt may be only two of several determinants of peak elbow varus torque.

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Chuyi Cui, Brittney Muir, Shirley Rietdyk, Jeffrey Haddad, Richard van Emmerik, and Satyajit Ambike

) is captured by the Jacobian matrix, which relates small changes in the joint angles to changes in H . The forward kinematic map ( f ) that relates H and 10 joint angles ( θ i , Figure  2 ) is given by: H = f ( θ ) = h 1 ( θ ) + h 2 ( θ ) − h 3 ( θ ) , where h 1  = cos( θ 4 ) × [ L shank  × sin

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Inge Tuitert, Tim A. Valk, Egbert Otten, Laura Golenia, and Raoul M. Bongers

. In reaching movements, the analytical method to create the linear model ( de Freitas & Scholz, 2010 ; Scholz & Schöner, 1999 ) employs the computation of the fingertip position with respect to the trunk, using segment origins and rotation matrices of joint angles (i.e., the computation of forward

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Fariba Hasanbarani and Mark L. Latash

statistical analysis, we used only three phases: beginning (0–10%), middle (40–50%), and end (90–100%). Computing Variance Components and Synergy Indices A forward kinematic model ( Yang & Scholz, 2005 ) was developed to link the changes in the EVs θ → to the two PVs, hand coordinate ( x , y , z