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Karl M. Newell

In this paper I discuss briefly some traditional and contemporary issues that challenge the academic structure of the field of Kinesiology. These include the long-standing polemics of the profession-discipline debate and the fragmentation of the academic content knowledge, together with the more recent challenges of education or health as the umbrella construct and the relation of kinesiology to physical and occupational therapy. It appears that the essence of our persistent problems remains, but it is augmented with related and more contemporary issues. Thus, these continue to be challenging times in kinesiology, as they are for higher education in general, reinforcing the long-held notion that change is the one constant.

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Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre, Marina Saresella, Ivana Marventano, Giampiero Merati, Giuseppe Banfi, and Jacopo A. Vitale

time; (4) immobility time (IT), the total time, expressed in percentage, spent without any movement recorded during time in bed; (5) moving time (MT), the total time, expressed in percentage, spent moving between sleep start and sleep end; and (6) fragmentation index (FI), the sum of the percentages of

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Anis Aloulou, Francois Duforez, Damien Léger, Quentin De Larochelambert, and Mathieu Nedelec

time in bed; 5. SE—in percentage: the TST divided by the time in bed; 6. Sleep onset latency (minutes): the time between lights off and sleep onset; 7. Fragmentation index (arbitrary units [A.U.]): the sum of the mobile time (in percentage) and the immobile bouts ≤1 minute (in percentage); and 8

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Michael McDougall, Noora Ronkainen, David Richardson, Martin Littlewood, and Mark Nesti

of integration (what is shared and consistent), differentiation (what is contested), and fragmentation (what is ambiguous) ( Martin, 1992 , 2002 ; Meyerson & Martin, 1987 ). Building upon our previous critique of the integration perspective ( McDougall et al, 2020 ), we aim to show how other

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Heidi Skantz, Timo Rantalainen, Laura Karavirta, Merja Rantakokko, Lotta Palmberg, Erja Portegijs, and Taina Rantanen

walking (e.g., daily walking minutes, daily walking bouts, walking bout duration, and walking bout intensity) and about the patterns of daily walking activity (e.g. walking bout duration and activity fragmentation; Palmberg et al., 2020 ; Schrack et al., 2018 ; Skotte, Korshøj, Kristiansen, Hanisch

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Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, and Antonio La Torre

Immobility time, % The total time, expressed in percentage, spent without recording any movement during time in bed Moving time, % The total time, expressed in percentage, spent moving during time in bed Fragmentation index, % Sum of mobility and immobility accesses in 1 min, divided by the number of

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Akira Saito, Kyoji Okada, Hiromichi Sato, Kazuyuki Shibata, and Tetsuaki Kamata

ultrasonography in diagnosing medial elbow injury have been demonstrated. 17 Table  1 summarizes the demographic characteristics of each group. The medial elbow injury group comprised 51 youth baseball players (mean age, 11.2 y; range, 10–12 y) who were diagnosed with medial epicondylar fragmentation of their

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Lauren Reichart Smith and Kenny D. Smith

This case study, using social-identity theory as a framework, examines how sport consumers and producers used different identifiers to engage in conversation during the final games of the 2012 College World Series of baseball. Five major hashtags were noted for each baseball team as primary identifiers; users fit in 3 main groups and subgroups. The analysis of tweets revealed 5 major themes around which the conversations primarily revolved. The study has implications for social-identity theory and team identification, as well as broader implications for audience fragmentation and notions of the community of sport.

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Edward G. Armstrong

Semiotics is employed in an examination of Michael Jordan (the signified) and his uniform number (the signifier). A systematic comparative framework is used to limit the potentially infinite multiplicity of interpretants. Its themes are the way Jordan expresses the modernity-postmodernity division and is, himself an aspect of this cultural characterization. Seven diacritical alternatives are considered: (a) secularism versus immanence; (b) bureaucratization versus decanonization; (c) equality versus diversity; (d) rationality versus intensities; (e) obsession with records versus spectacles; (f) quantification versus fragmentation; and, (g) specialization versus commodification. Treating Jordan as text, as postmodern athlete archetype, leads to a consideration of the commodification of his number, a process in which Jordan himself is transformed into a salable commodity.

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Vinicius Coneglian Santos, Adriana Cristina Levada-Pires, Sâmia Rocha Alves, Tânia Cristina Pithon-Curi, Rui Curi, and Maria Fernanda Cury-Boaventura

Purpose:

To investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic-(DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on lymphocyte function before and after a marathon race.

Methods:

Twenty-one athletes participated in this study. Eight marathon runners were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 60 d (FO group), and 13 athletes were not supplemented (C group). The following measures of lymphocytes were taken before and after the marathon: cell proliferation, cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-4), and signs of cell death.

Results:

In the C group, the marathon had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation, DNA fragmentation, or mitochondrial membrane polarization; however, the marathon increased phosphatidylserine externalization (by 2.5-fold), induced a loss of plasma membrane integrity (by 20%), and decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production (by 55%, 95%, and 50%, respectively). FO supplementation did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by the marathon, as indicated by cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. However, FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation before and after the marathon, and before the race, FO supplementation decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production in concanavalin-A-stimulated lymphocytes (by 55%, 95%, and 58%, respectively) compared with cells from the C group. The production of cytokines was not altered before or after the race in the FO group.

Conclusions:

DHA-rich FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation and prevented a decrease in cytokine production, but it did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by participation in the marathon. Overall, DHA rich-FO supplementation has beneficial effects in preventing some of the changes in lymphocyte function induced by marathon participation.