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Karl M. Newell

In this paper I discuss briefly some traditional and contemporary issues that challenge the academic structure of the field of Kinesiology. These include the long-standing polemics of the profession-discipline debate and the fragmentation of the academic content knowledge, together with the more recent challenges of education or health as the umbrella construct and the relation of kinesiology to physical and occupational therapy. It appears that the essence of our persistent problems remains, but it is augmented with related and more contemporary issues. Thus, these continue to be challenging times in kinesiology, as they are for higher education in general, reinforcing the long-held notion that change is the one constant.

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Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Antonio La Torre

Immobility time, % The total time, expressed in percentage, spent without recording any movement during time in bed Moving time, % The total time, expressed in percentage, spent moving during time in bed Fragmentation index, % Sum of mobility and immobility accesses in 1 min, divided by the number of

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Lauren Reichart Smith and Kenny D. Smith

This case study, using social-identity theory as a framework, examines how sport consumers and producers used different identifiers to engage in conversation during the final games of the 2012 College World Series of baseball. Five major hashtags were noted for each baseball team as primary identifiers; users fit in 3 main groups and subgroups. The analysis of tweets revealed 5 major themes around which the conversations primarily revolved. The study has implications for social-identity theory and team identification, as well as broader implications for audience fragmentation and notions of the community of sport.

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Edward G. Armstrong

Semiotics is employed in an examination of Michael Jordan (the signified) and his uniform number (the signifier). A systematic comparative framework is used to limit the potentially infinite multiplicity of interpretants. Its themes are the way Jordan expresses the modernity-postmodernity division and is, himself an aspect of this cultural characterization. Seven diacritical alternatives are considered: (a) secularism versus immanence; (b) bureaucratization versus decanonization; (c) equality versus diversity; (d) rationality versus intensities; (e) obsession with records versus spectacles; (f) quantification versus fragmentation; and, (g) specialization versus commodification. Treating Jordan as text, as postmodern athlete archetype, leads to a consideration of the commodification of his number, a process in which Jordan himself is transformed into a salable commodity.

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Vinicius Coneglian Santos, Adriana Cristina Levada-Pires, Sâmia Rocha Alves, Tânia Cristina Pithon-Curi, Rui Curi and Maria Fernanda Cury-Boaventura


To investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic-(DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on lymphocyte function before and after a marathon race.


Twenty-one athletes participated in this study. Eight marathon runners were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 60 d (FO group), and 13 athletes were not supplemented (C group). The following measures of lymphocytes were taken before and after the marathon: cell proliferation, cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-4), and signs of cell death.


In the C group, the marathon had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation, DNA fragmentation, or mitochondrial membrane polarization; however, the marathon increased phosphatidylserine externalization (by 2.5-fold), induced a loss of plasma membrane integrity (by 20%), and decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production (by 55%, 95%, and 50%, respectively). FO supplementation did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by the marathon, as indicated by cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. However, FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation before and after the marathon, and before the race, FO supplementation decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production in concanavalin-A-stimulated lymphocytes (by 55%, 95%, and 58%, respectively) compared with cells from the C group. The production of cytokines was not altered before or after the race in the FO group.


DHA-rich FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation and prevented a decrease in cytokine production, but it did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by participation in the marathon. Overall, DHA rich-FO supplementation has beneficial effects in preventing some of the changes in lymphocyte function induced by marathon participation.

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Brendan Hokowhitu and Jay Scherer

In this article we examine a range of media discourses surrounding the continued existence of the Mäori All Blacks, a “racially” selected rugby side, and a specific public controversy that erupted in New Zealand over the selection of former All Black great Christian Cullen for the Mäori All Blacks in 2003. Having never played for the Mäori All Blacks or publicly identified as Mäori, Cullen claimed tangata whenua status via whakapapa (genealogical connection) to his Ngäi Tahu grandfather. We argue that Cullen’s selection emerged as a contentious issue because of the fragmentation that the inclusion of his “Whiteness” within the confines of “an Other” team (i.e., the Mäori All Blacks) brought to bear on traditional colonial binaries of race in the context of late capitalism. Finally, we locate the debates over Cullen’s selection and the continued existence of the Mäori All Blacks in relation to the current racialized political climate that has fueled a Right-wing reaction to the growing Mäori self-determination movement.

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Hal A. Lawson and R. Scott Kretchmar

Debates-as-battles have characterized the histories of physical education and kinesiology. This colorful part of the field’s history was characterized by leaders’ narrow, rigid views, and it paved the way for divisiveness, excessive specialization, and fragmentation. Today’s challenge is to seek common purpose via stewardship-oriented dialogue, and it requires a return to first order questions regarding purposes, ethics, values, moral imperatives, and social responsibilities. These questions are especially timely insofar as kinesiology risks running on a kind of automatic pilot, seemingly driven by faculty self-interests and buffered from consequential changes in university environments and societal contexts. A revisionist history of kinesiology’s origins and development suggests that it can be refashioned as a helping discipline, one that combines rigor, relevance, and altruism. It gives rise to generative questions regarding what a 21st century discipline prioritizes and does, and it opens opportunity pathways for crossing boundaries and bridging divides. Three sets of conclusions illuminate unrealized possibilities for a vibrant, holistic kinesiology—a renewed discipline that is fit for purpose in 21st century contexts.

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Dragana Lagundžin, Vesna Vučić, Marija Glibetić and Olgica Nedić

Physical activity is accompanied by the changes in Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I)/IGF-Binding Protein 1 (IGFBP-1) axis. Inconsistent results concerning IGF-I and IGFBP-1 levels were reported. In this study we have raised some questions on the events that occur at the molecular level of the exercise-related IGFBP-1 changes. We have examined the fragmentation pattern of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-1 protease activity, interaction between IGFBP-1 and alpha2-macroglobulin (α2M), and possible existence of minor structural changes of IGFBP-1 in professional soccer players. Athletes had significantly greater amounts of fragmented IGFBP- 1, whereas no difference was found in the amount of intact IGFBP-1 compared with controls. An increased activity of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) was detected in athletes, causing IGFBP-1 degradation down to the fragment of 9 kDa as the major one. The amount of α2M, which protects IGFBP-1 from proteolysis, or the amount of IGFBP-1/α2M complexes was unaltered. Finally, we have examined whether IGFBP-1 isolated from soccer players exhibited altered reactivity with several chemical surfaces used in surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Different reactivity was detected with anion and cation exchangers, suggesting existence of at least one sequence within IGFBP-1, whose ionization pattern was not equal in athletes and controls. Differences in spectra obtained with ion exchanges may reflect differences in IGFBP-1 phosphorylation. Physiological implications of the events described in this study on the IGF-I availability are, at this time, unknown. It can be hypothesized that IGFBP-1 proteolysis leads to altered distribution of IGF-I among IGFBPs, which may affect the final IGF-associated response.

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Douglas Booth

-aligned theories that gained a foothold in sport sociology in the late twentieth century and that reject the dialectical unity of opposites in preference to difference, diversity, hybridity, fragmentation, and freedom of interpretation. With regard to history, Gruneau ( 1999 , p. 127) has long championed a

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Bailey Peck, Timothy Renzi, Hannah Peach, Jane Gaultney and Joseph S. Marino

that may hold implications for modification of present and future health practices. Individuals with SDB often report excessive daytime sleepiness, likely due at least in part to sleep fragmentation. 27 Student-athletes’ schedules involve managing the rigors of academics and practice and game