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Trent Seltzer and Stephen W. Dittmore

This study used second-level agenda-setting and agenda-building theory as a framework for investigating media coverage of the NFL Network carriage dispute and how NFL and cable operators attempted to frame this issue via their respective public relations efforts. National, regional, and trade media stories over a 2-year period were content analyzed along with corporate press releases. Results indicated that the NFL and cable operators in particular were framed negatively in media coverage. However, the percentage of positive media stories was much higher for the NFL than for the cable operators. The findings suggest that initially the NFL was more effective in having its messages resonate with the media than were the cable operators. As the issue evolved over time and fans were faced with the prospect of missing key games, the media framing of the debate shifted the blame from the cable companies to both cable operators and the NFL.

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Jessica Love and Lindsey Conlin Maxwell

current study analyzed news stories about Williams in May and September of 2018. In addition to understanding how Williams was framed, this was also to determine whether entrenched institutions in the community of sport reporting affected coverage. The majority of sport journalists are men (see Franks

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame Agyemang

( 2008 ) previously highlighted that NCAA leaders frequently attempt to frame the organization as capable of remaining “true to the organization’s identity and values while pursuing additional revenue” (p. 520). Framing also appears likely because the NCAA and its member institutions often attempt to

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Kin-Kit Li, Lorna Ng, Sheung-Tak Cheng and Helene H. Fung

to convey why and how to achieve the PA level ( Latimer, Brawley, & Bassett, 2010 ). Message framing is one such approach to design effective messages that communicate the reasons to be physically active. Gain-framed messages that describe the benefits of participating in PA are argued to be more

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Tiago Duarte, Diane M. Culver and Kyle Paquette

Beginning a decade and a half ago, coach developers began to frame studies about coach learning within social learning theory ( Lave & Wenger, 1991 ; Wenger, 1998 ), particularly through the concept of communities of practice (e.g.,  Bertram, Culver, & Gilbert, 2016 ; Culver & Trudel, 2006

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Mark Dottori, Guy Faulkner, Ryan Rhodes, Norm O’Reilly, Leigh Vanderloo and Gashaw Abeza

). However, health organizations rely on the media to communicate their messages, and the framing of their messages rests with the journalists who present their information to the public ( Tanner, Friedman, & Zheng, 2015 ). A number of studies (e.g.,  McCombs, 2018 ; Weishaar et al., 2016 ) reported on the

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Johanna Popp, Nanna Notthoff and Lisa Marie Warner

increasing physical activity can be adapted in order to effectively reach an older population. Framing of Health Information and Positivity Effect in Old Age Previous research in this field has indicated that message framing, the profit- or loss-oriented phrasing of health information, can result in

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Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

with how a team or athlete wants information covered and the way the media reproduce that information. Media framing researchers have shown that the messages presented by the media are influenced by the media’s self-interests and do not always reflect how the organization or athlete presented the

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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

, Burton, McKelvey, and Snyder ( 2018 ) sought to examine the positioning of ambush marketing in media reporting and rights holders’ influence over media discourse, further highlighting the role played by sponsors and rights holders in informing public perception and ethical framing. The origins of this

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Zachary W. Arth and Andrew C. Billings

viewers should see; indeed, they are utilizing the selection aspect of framing ( Gitlin, 1980 ). If a graphic reaches the screen displaying the number of home runs a batter has hit against the current pitcher, those in charge of the broadcast decided that is what should be more salient to viewers