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Trent Seltzer and Stephen W. Dittmore

This study used second-level agenda-setting and agenda-building theory as a framework for investigating media coverage of the NFL Network carriage dispute and how NFL and cable operators attempted to frame this issue via their respective public relations efforts. National, regional, and trade media stories over a 2-year period were content analyzed along with corporate press releases. Results indicated that the NFL and cable operators in particular were framed negatively in media coverage. However, the percentage of positive media stories was much higher for the NFL than for the cable operators. The findings suggest that initially the NFL was more effective in having its messages resonate with the media than were the cable operators. As the issue evolved over time and fans were faced with the prospect of missing key games, the media framing of the debate shifted the blame from the cable companies to both cable operators and the NFL.

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame Agyemang

( 2008 ) previously highlighted that NCAA leaders frequently attempt to frame the organization as capable of remaining “true to the organization’s identity and values while pursuing additional revenue” (p. 520). Framing also appears likely because the NCAA and its member institutions often attempt to

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Mark Dottori, Guy Faulkner, Ryan Rhodes, Norm O’Reilly, Leigh Vanderloo and Gashaw Abeza

). However, health organizations rely on the media to communicate their messages, and the framing of their messages rests with the journalists who present their information to the public ( Tanner, Friedman, & Zheng, 2015 ). A number of studies (e.g.,  McCombs, 2018 ; Weishaar et al., 2016 ) reported on the

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Kin-Kit Li, Lorna Ng, Sheung-Tak Cheng and Helene H. Fung

to convey why and how to achieve the PA level ( Latimer, Brawley, & Bassett, 2010 ). Message framing is one such approach to design effective messages that communicate the reasons to be physically active. Gain-framed messages that describe the benefits of participating in PA are argued to be more

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Johanna Popp, Nanna Notthoff and Lisa Marie Warner

increasing physical activity can be adapted in order to effectively reach an older population. Framing of Health Information and Positivity Effect in Old Age Previous research in this field has indicated that message framing, the profit- or loss-oriented phrasing of health information, can result in

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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

, Burton, McKelvey, and Snyder ( 2018 ) sought to examine the positioning of ambush marketing in media reporting and rights holders’ influence over media discourse, further highlighting the role played by sponsors and rights holders in informing public perception and ethical framing. The origins of this

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Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

with how a team or athlete wants information covered and the way the media reproduce that information. Media framing researchers have shown that the messages presented by the media are influenced by the media’s self-interests and do not always reflect how the organization or athlete presented the

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Jimmy Sanderson

This research explored how press outlets and fans framed professional golfer Tiger Woods’s marital infidelity. A textual analysis of newspaper reports and discussion postings on Tiger Woods’s official Facebook page was conducted. Analysis revealed that press accounts framed Woods’s actions as a tragic flaw that precipitated his fall from grace, while also reveling in the salacious details of the extramarital affairs. Conversely, fans primarily framed these incidents as private matters that demonstrated Woods’s human nature. The analysis suggests that social-media sites are valuable public relations tools that athletes can use to quickly generate support that counteracts perceived negative media framing. Social-media sites also enable fans to enhance perceptions of closeness with athletes as fans interject themselves into athletes’ media narratives.

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James R. Angelini, Andrew C. Billings and Paul J. MacArthur

A population of NBC’s primetime coverage of the 2010 Vancouver Olympics (64 hours) was analyzed to determine differences between the media treatment of U.S. and non-U.S. Olympians. Results showed that U.S. athletes were highlighted at three to four times to rate their successes would suggest. In addition, American athletes were more likely to be depicted as succeeding because of their intellect, commitment, and consonance while non-American athletes were more likely to be depicted as failing because they lacked the strength and skill of other athletes. From a personality/physicality standpoint, American athletes received enhanced comments about their outgoing/extroverted nature while non-American athletes received more comments about the size and parts of their bodies. Ramifications for framing theory and Olympic nationalism research are articulated.

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Lindsey Conlin, Dylan M. McLemore and Richard A. Rush

Female sport fans account for over 45% of the fan base in some major professional sport leagues. This study analyzes every verified Pinterest account from teams in the 4 major North American sport leagues to investigate how teams use a social network consisting largely of female users to reach this growing target audience. The study finds that sport teams use Pinterest to promote purchasable items, share information about the team, highlight the fan experience, and share creative content—although to a lesser extent than the typical Pinterest user. Differences between leagues and details of content frames are discussed. Future directives for understanding how sport teams use Pinterest are presented, and the utility of visual framing for investigating new media is discussed.