better understand the gendered representations of athletes on social media. Framing Theory Rather than simply identifying the coverage, this study refers to framing theory to explain the issues presented on social media coverage of the 2018 Commonwealth Games. Framing theory ( Goffman, 1974 ) provides an
Elaine Chiao Ling Yang, Michelle Hayes, Jinyan Chen, Caroline Riot, and Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore
Kathy Babiak and Stacy-Lynn Sant
protections from transgressions, as well as other perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors. As such, the messages directed to audiences, and the way they interpret information via media channels, may provide some reputational benefit to charitable athletes. Framing Theory Framing theory was pioneered by
Gregory A. Cranmer, Maria Brann, and Nicholas D. Bowman
Previous studies have suggested that media reify frames that subtly enforce sex differences in a manner that detracts from women athletes’ athleticism. This phenomenon is referred to as ambivalence. To analyze ambivalence, this study introduces a theoretically and empirically supported coding scheme that was used to conduct a quantitative frame analysis of 157 images featured in ESPN’s The Body Issue. These images were coded for frames that de-emphasize athleticism, sexualize athletes, or deny a sporting context. Results suggest that athlete sex is associated with de-emphasized athleticism and sexualized frames, and sport gender is associated with context frames. Results also support longitudinal trends in The Body Issue series, which suggest that the series has become more sexualized and removed from a sports context but has decreased the use of frames that de-emphasize athleticism. In general, The Body Issue continues to reinforce established media trends that trivialize female athletes, despite claiming to do the opposite.
Ezequiel Morsella, Anthony G. Velasquez, Jessica K. Yankulova, Yanming Li, Christina Y. Wong, and Dennis Lambert
sensitivity that is afforded by a fully operational conscious field. From the standpoint of passive frame theory ( Morsella et al., 2016 ), which is a synthesis of empirically supported hypotheses from diverse fields of action research, the conscious field is construed as a “frame” that affords adaptive
Khirey B. Walker, Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing, and Kwame Agyemang
the literature on social-control agents through framing theory. Previous studies explored the media as a social-control agent (e.g., Clemente & Gabbioneta, 2017 ), yet none have examined the strategic frames used by the media and compared them against a third-party regulator regarding acts of
Bo Li, Sarah Stokowski, Stephen W. Dittmore, and Olan K. M. Scott
Informed by framing theory, the study strove to investigate nationalism by examining Chinese newspaper coverage of the 2014 Incheon Asian Games. Through document and textual analysis of 324 articles from 5 mainstream newspapers, the study indicated that Chinese newspapers always portrayed Chinese athletes as “dominating the competition” and “lacking opponents in Asia” while portraying other countries’ athletes as “less competitive” and not at the “level of Chinese athletes.” The results also suggested that Chinese newspapers tried to positively spin the story when reporting the failure of Chinese athletes at the Asian Games. However, to increase readership and enhance public awareness of the Asian Games,Chinese newspapers also attempted to created rivalries between Chinese athletes and competing nations and, at times, emphasized national failures.
Austin Stair Calhoun, Nicole M. LaVoi, and Alicia Johnson
Sport scholars have connected heteronormativity and heterosexism to the creation of privilege for the dominant group. They also contend that the coverage and framing of female athletes and coaches promote heteronormativity across print, broadcast, and new media. To date, research examining heteronormativity and heterosexism on university-sponsored athletics Web sites is scarce. Using framing theory, online biographies of NCAA intercollegiate head coaches of 12 conferences (N = 1,902) were examined for textual representations of heteronormativity and heterosexism. Biographies were coded based on the presence or absence of personal text—and the presence or absence of family narratives. The data demonstrate a near absence of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered coaches, suggesting that digital content of intercollegiate athletic department Web sites reproduces dominant gender ideologies and is plagued by homophobia in overt and subtle ways.
Andrea M. Eagleman
Racial and nationality-based stereotypes of professional baseball players have been prominent in the U.S. media since the 1800s (Voigt, 1976). To determine the manner and extent to which such stereotypes exist in the media today, a qualitative document analysis was conducted on the nation’s top two general-interest sport magazines, Sports Illustrated and ESPN The Magazine from 2000 to 2007. Based on framing theory, the purpose of this study was to determine what differences existed between the frames used to describe athletes of differing nationalities and races. The results revealed that stereotypes based on race and nationalities were maintained throughout the study in both publications, further perpetuating such stereotypes into the minds of readers. In addition, differences existed in portrayals of athletes of the same race but different nationalities. Implications for sport managers and suggestions for future research are addressed.
James R. Angelini, Andrew C. Billings, and Paul J. MacArthur
A population of NBC’s primetime coverage of the 2010 Vancouver Olympics (64 hours) was analyzed to determine differences between the media treatment of U.S. and non-U.S. Olympians. Results showed that U.S. athletes were highlighted at three to four times to rate their successes would suggest. In addition, American athletes were more likely to be depicted as succeeding because of their intellect, commitment, and consonance while non-American athletes were more likely to be depicted as failing because they lacked the strength and skill of other athletes. From a personality/physicality standpoint, American athletes received enhanced comments about their outgoing/extroverted nature while non-American athletes received more comments about the size and parts of their bodies. Ramifications for framing theory and Olympic nationalism research are articulated.
Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone, and Timothy Kellison
interactivity affects how messages are communicated, interpreted, and responded to by individuals. Each source of communication adds its own perspective, which together shapes the overall discourse surrounding a subject. Framing theory provides a useful guide for understanding how different sources of