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Christopher P. Connolly, Jordana Dahmen, Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, and Alexander H.K. Montoye

during pregnancy, but do not extend conclusively to activities beyond treadmill walking or to free-living settings. It has previously been shown that walking gait on a treadmill differs from overground ( Hollman et al., 2016 ; Lu, Lu, Lin, & Chan, 2017 ), and thus it is unclear if previous step

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Alexander H.K. Montoye, Olivia Coolman, Amberly Keyes, Megan Ready, Jaedyn Shelton, Ethan Willett, and Brian C. Rider

monitor is secured against an individual’s thigh and can be worn continuously for multiple days. Past research provides strong support of the accuracy and reliability of activPAL for assessing sedentary behaviors and patterns, stepping, and upright behaviors in free-living settings ( Grant et al., 2006

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Kerstin Bach, Atle Kongsvold, Hilde Bårdstu, Ellen Marie Bardal, Håkon S. Kjærnli, Sverre Herland, Aleksej Logacjov, and Paul Jarle Mork

random forest classifier can detect sitting, lying, standing, walking, running, and cycling with high overall accuracy based on training data obtained in a semi free-living environment, using two accelerometers positioned on the thigh and low back ( Narayanan et al., 2020 ). Although a multiaccelerometer

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Claire Marie Jie Lin Goh, Nan Xin Wang, Andre Matthias Müller, Rowena Yap, Sarah Edney, and Falk Müller-Riemenschneider

; Dybus et al., 2017 ; Modave et al., 2017 ; Presset et al., 2018 ; Sears et al., 2017 ). Few studies have attempted to assess the accuracy of these devices in free-living conditions ( Wen et al., 2017 ), which is important as they are increasingly being used to promote and measure physical activity in

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Nicolas Farina and Ruth G. Lowry

between devices. These devices have also been validated in “free-living” conditions ( Ferguson, Rowlands, Olds, & Maher, 2015 ; Kooiman et al., 2015 ; Tully, McBride, Heron, & Hunter, 2014 ), which are likely to better reflect real-world activities. Notably, the validation of these devices in the

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Giovanni Mario Pes, Maria Pina Dore, Alessandra Errigo, and Michel Poulain

et al., 2011 ). However, all these methods except the last are time-consuming and require specific training by the operators. Among the portable movement sensors able to record energy expenditure (EE) under free-living conditions, the Sensewear™ Armband (BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburg, PA, USA) has gained

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Albert R. Mendoza, Kate Lyden, John Sirard, John Staudenmayer, Catrine Tudor-Locke, and Patty S. Freedson

, wearable devices that track PA behavior are increasingly popular tools for researchers, clinicians, and the general public to monitor free-living behavior. According to a recent report, global wearable technology sales will grow from more than $30 billion in 2016 to more than $150 billion by 2026 ( Hayward

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Mary C. Hidde, Kate Lyden, Josiane L. Broussard, Kim L. Henry, Julia L. Sharp, Elizabeth A. Thomas, Corey A. Rynders, and Heather J. Leach

accelerometer that is valid and reliable for measuring both waking behaviors and TIB. One of the validated devices often utilized in clinical research, current gold-standard devices to measure free-living waking activity, is the activPAL ™ accelerometer, manufactured by PAL Technologies Ltd. ( 2010 ). The

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Greg Petrucci Jr., Patty Freedson, Brittany Masteller, Melanna Cox, John Staudenmayer, and John Sirard

 al., 2015 ) by examining the sensitivity of the MS to detect changes during 1) a structured laboratory-based protocol to simulate sedentary office work interrupted by bouts of activity, and 2) a two-week free-living protocol, where participants were inactive for one week and for the second week, they were

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Alan K. Bourke, Espen A. F. Ihlen, and Jorunn L. Helbostad

The measurement of physical activity patterns has the potential to reveal underlying causes of changes in modifiable risk-factors associated with health and well-being. Accurate classification of physical activity (PA) in free-living situations requires the use of a validated measurement system to