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Timothy D. Heden, Ying Liu, Young-Min Park, Nathan C. Winn, and Jill A. Kanaley


This study assessed if walking at a self-selected pace could improve postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in obese adolescents consuming high-fructose (HF) or high-glucose (HG) diets.


Seven obese male and female adolescents (18 ± 1 yr) performed 4, 15-day trials in a random order, including 1) HF-diet (50 g fructose/d added to normal diet) while being sedentary, 2) HG-diet (50 g glucose/d) while sedentary, 3) HF-diet with additional walking, and 4) HG-diet with additional walking. On the 15th day of each trial, the participants performed mixed meal testing in the laboratory in which they consumed three liquid shakes (either HF or HG) and during the HF and HG sedentary trials, the participants took < 4000 steps while in the laboratory but during the walking trials took ≥ 13,000 steps during testing.


Walking did not alter postprandial glucose concentrations. Although walking reduced insulin secretion by 34% and 25% during the HF- and HG-diet, respectively (P < .05), total insulin concentrations were only significantly reduced (P > .05) with walking during the HF trial, possibly because walking enhanced insulin clearance to a greater extent during the HF-diet.


Walking reduces postprandial insulin secretion in obese adolescents consuming a high-fructose or high-glucose diet.

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Tim Podlogar, Simon Cirnski, Špela Bokal, Nina Verdel, and Javier T. Gonzalez

.e., liver and muscle) were investigated. It was shown that co-ingestion of fructose with glucose after exhaustive exercise enhances liver glycogen repletion over ingestion of glucose-based CHOs only ( Décombaz et al., 2011 ; Fuchs et al., 2016 ) but does not negatively affect muscle glycogen replenishment

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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts, and Javier T. Gonzalez

contributes to the maintenance of blood glucose availability during exercise, a lack of which is associated with the onset of fatigue ( Coyle & Coggan, 1984 ). In contrast to muscle glycogen, liver glycogen synthesis is potently increased by coingestion of the low-glycemic index carbohydrate, fructose, with

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Mark A. Tarnopolsky, Kerry Dyson, Stephanie A. Atkinson, Duncan MacDougall, and Cynthia Cupido

We studied the effects of different CHO supplements on exercise metabolism (1 hr at 75% V ˙ O 2 ) and performance (fatigue time at 85% V ˙ O 2 ) in 8 male endurance athletes ( V O 2 max = 68.8 ± 3.8  ml kg 1 min 1 ) Four treatments were administered in a randomized, double-blind fashion: Trial A = 3-day pretest, postexercise supplementation (177 kcal [81% carbohydrate, 19% protein] consumed < 10 min after exercise) + 600 ml 8% glucose polymers/ fructose 1 hr pretesting + 600 ml 8% glucose polymers/glucose during testing; Trial B = placebo during 3-day pretest + remainder same as Trial A; Trial C = placebo at all time points; and Trial D = same as Trial B with 8% glucose 1 hr before the test as well as during the test. Time to fatigue at 85% V ˙ O 2 max (Í24%) and total CHO oxidation were greater for A versus C (p < .05). Plasma glucose concentration was higher for A and B versus C, while increases in plasma potassium concentration were attenuated for A versus C (both p < .05). None of the supplements had differential effects upon hematocrit, plasma sodium [Na+] and lactate, V ˙ O 2 , or rating of perceived exertion during exercise. Three-day preexercise protein + carbohydrate supplements followed by 1-hr pre- and during-exercise mixed carbohydrate supplements increased time to fatigue and carbohydrate oxidation and attenuated rises in plasma [K+] com pared to placebo.

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Yan Burelle, François Péronnet, Denis Massicotte, Guy R. Brisson, and Claude Hillaire-Marcel

The oxidation of 13C-labeled glucose and fructose ingested as a preexercise meal between 180 and 90 min before exercise was measured on 6 subjects when either a placebo or sucrose was ingested during the exercise period. Labeled hexose oxidation, which occurred mainly during the first hour of exercise, was not significantly modified when sucrose was ingested, but exogenous glucose oxidation was significantly higher than exogenous fructose oxidation in both situations. The results suggest that the absorption rate of exogenous hexoses was high when exercise was initiated but diminished thereafter, and that glucose and fructose released from sucrose ingested during exercise did not compete with glucose or fructose ingested before exercise for intestinal absorption, for conversion into glucose in the liver (for fructose), or for uptake and oxidation of glucose in peripheral tissues. However, as already shown, in terms of availability for oxidation of carbohydrates provided by the preexercise meal, glucose should be favored over fructose.

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James R. Rowe, Kyle D. Biggerstaff, Vic Ben-Ezra, David L. Nichols, and Nancy DiMarco

This study examined the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia (PPL) concentration following a mixed meal (MM) made with either glucose or fructose. Sedentary women completed four trials in random order: 1) Rest-Fructose: RF, 2) Rest-Glucose: RG, 3) Exercise-Fructose: EF, 4) Exercise-Glucose: EG. Exercise expended 500 kcal while walking at 70%VO2max. Rest was 60 min of sitting. The morning after each trial, a fasting (12 hr) blood sample was collected followed by consumption of the MM. The MM was blended with whole milk and ice cream plus a glucose or fructose powder. Glucose and fructose powder accounted for 30% of the total kcal within the MM. Blood was collected periodically for 6 hr post-MM and analyzed for PPL. Magnitude of PPL over the 6 hr postmeal was quantified using the triglyceride incremental area under the curve (TG AUCI). Significant differences (p < .05) between trials were determined using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. There was no significant difference in the TG AUCI between the four trials (p > .05). A significant trial by time interaction for TG concentration was reported (p < .05). Despite lack of change in the AUCI with prior exercise, the lower TG concentration at multiple time points in the EG trial does indicate that prior exercise has some desirable effect on PPL. This study suggests that replacing fructose with glucose sugars and incorporating exercise may minimize PPL following a mixed meal but exercise will need to elicit greater energy expenditure.

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Darren Triplett, J. Andrew Doyle, Jeffrey C. Rupp, and Dan Benardot

A number of recent research studies have demonstrated that providing glucose and fructose together in a beverage consumed during exercise results in significantly higher oxidation rates of exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) than consuming glucose alone. However, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the increased exogenous CHO oxidation improves endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consuming a beverage containing glucose and fructose (GF) would result in improved cycling performance compared with an isocaloric glucose-only beverage (G). Nine male competitive cyclists (32.6 ± 5.8 years, peak oxygen uptake 61.5 ± 7.9 ml · kg-1 · min-1) completed a familiarization trial and then 2 simulated 100-km cycling time trials on an electronically braked Lode cycle ergometer separated by 5–7 d. During the randomly ordered experimental trials, participants received 36 g of CHO of either G or GF in 250 ml of water every 15 min. All 9 participants completed the 100-km time trial significantly faster when they received the GF beverage than with G (204.0 ± 23.7 vs. 220.6 ± 36.6 min; p = .023). There was no difference at any time point between trials for blood glucose or for blood lactate. Total CHO oxidation increased significantly from rest during exercise but was not statistically significant between the GF and G trials, although there was a trend for CHO oxidation to be higher with GF in the latter stages of the time trial. Consumption of a CHO beverage containing glucose and fructose results in improved 100-km cycling performance compared with an isocaloric glucose-only beverage.

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Kirsty M. Reynolds, Tom Clifford, Stephen A. Mears, and Lewis J. James

one, which become saturated at glucose intakes of ∼60 g/hr ( Rowlands et al., 2015 ; Trommelen et al., 2017 ). Fructose, by contrast, utilizes glucose transporter five for transport in the small intestine, which allows additional carbohydrate to be absorbed, up to intakes of ∼30 g/hr, facilitating

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Tanja Oosthuyse, Matthew Carstens, and Aletta M.E. Millen

Certain commercial carbohydrate replacement products include slowly absorbed carbohydrates such as isomaltulose. Few studies have investigated the metabolic effects of ingesting isomaltulose during exercise and none have evaluated exercise performance and gastrointestinal comfort. Nine male cyclists participated postprandially during three trials of 2-h steady-state (S-S) exercise (60% W max) followed by a 16 km time trial (TT) while ingesting 63 g∙h-1 of either, 0.8:1 fructose: maltodextrin (F:M) or isomaltulose (ISO) or placebo-flavored water (PL). Data were analyzed by magnitude-based inferences. During S-S exercise, ISO and PL similarly increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration (mean change ISO versus F:M: 0.18, 90%CI ± 0.21 mmol∙L-1, 88% likelihood) and fat oxidation (10, 90%CI ± 9 g, 89% likelihood) while decreasing carbohydrate oxidation (-36, 90%CI ± 30.2 g, 91% likelihood) compared with F:M, despite equal elevations in blood glucose concentration with ISO and F:M. Rating of stomach cramps and bloating increased progressively with ISO (rating: 0-90 min S-S, weak; 120 min S-S, moderate; TT, strong) compared with F:M and PL (0-120 min S-S and TT, very weak). TT performance was substantially slower with ISO (mean change: 1.5, 90%CI ± 1.4 min, 94% likely harmful) compared with F:M. The metabolic response of ISO ingestion during moderate exercise to increase NEFA availability and fat oxidation despite elevating blood glucose concentration is anomalous for a carbohydrate supplement. However, ingesting isomaltulose at a continuous high frequency to meet the recommended carbohydrate replacement dose, results in severe gastrointestinal symptoms during prolonged or high intensity exercise and negatively affects exercise performance compared with fructose-maltodextrin supplementation.

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Xuguang Zhang, Niamh O’Kennedy, and James P. Morton

The provision of exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of energy gels is regularly practiced among endurance and team sport athletes. However, in those instances where athletes ingest suboptimal fluid intake, consuming gels during exercise may lead to gastrointestinal (GI) problems when the nutritional composition of the gel is not aligned with promoting gastric emptying. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to quantify the degree of diversity in nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels intended for use in the global sports nutrition market. We surveyed 31 product ranges (incorporating 51 flavor variants) from 23 brands (Accelerade, CNP, High5, GU, Hammer, Maxim, Clif, USN, Mule, Multipower, Nectar, Carb-Boom, Power Bar, Lucozade, Shotz, TORQ, Dextro, Kinetica, SiS, Zipvit, Maxifuel, Gatorade and Squeezy). Gels differed markedly in serving size (50 ± 22 g: 29–120), energy density (2.34 ± 0.7 kcal/g: 0.83–3.40), energy content (105 ± 24 kcal: 78–204), CHO content (26 ± 6 g: 18–51) and free sugar content (9.3 ± 7.0 g: 0.6–26.8). Most notably, gels displayed extreme variation in osmolality (4424 ± 2883 mmol/kg: 303–10,135) thereby having obvious implications for both GI discomfort and the total fluid intake likely required to optimize CHO delivery and oxidation. The large diversity of nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels illustrate that not all gels should be considered the same. Sports nutrition practitioners should therefore consider the aforementioned variables to make better-informed decisions regarding which gel product best suits the athlete’s specific fueling and hydration requirements.