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Francisco J. Amaro-Gahete, Lucas Jurado-Fasoli, Alejandro R. Triviño, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Alejandro De-la-O, Jørn W. Helge and Jonatan R. Ruiz

energy storage is effectively unlimited during prolonged exercise. 3 Therefore, the capacity to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability (known as metabolic flexibility) is a key determinant of endurance sport performance. 4 Therefore, the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) capacity during a graded exercise

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Julia H. Goedecke, Richard Elmer, Steven C. Dennis, Ingrid Schloss, Timothy D. Noakes and Estelle V. Lambert

The effects of ingesting different amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) and carbohydrate (CHO) on gastric symptoms, fuel metabolism, and exercise performance were measured in 9 endurance-trained cyclists. Participants, 2 hr after a standardized lunch, cycled for 2 hr at 63% of peak oxygen consumption and then performed a simulated 40-km time trial (T trial). During the rides, participants ingested either 10% 14C-glucose (GLU), 10% 14C-GLU + 1.72%MCT(LO-MCT), or 10% l4C-GLU + 3.44%MCT(HI-MCT) solutions: 400 ml at the start of exercise and then 100 ml every lOmin.MCTingestiondid not affect gastrointestinal symptoms. It only raised serum free fatty acid (FFA) and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Higher FFA and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with MCT ingestion did not affect fuel oxidation or T-trial performance. The high CHO content of the pretrial lunch increased starting plasma insulin levels, which may have promoted CHO oxidation despite elevated circulating FFA concentrations with MCT ingestion.

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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous

of perceived exertion (RPE) and enhanced concentrations of plasma metabolites, while the rates of fuel oxidation and endurance performance were not affected by caffeine. These authors, as well as Graham et al, 7 speculated that the inconsistent results among studies following caffeine ingestion

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

general aerobic fuel oxidation rates for ultramarathon running have not yet been fully explored, applying the guidelines and recommendations for shorter endurance exercise could be erroneous. Therefore, individual specific assessment for carbohydrate gastric emptying and intestinal transit, digestibility

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Paolo T. Pianosi

air required by exercising muscle and to eliminate CO 2 produced from fuel oxidation by these same muscles. Ergo, it is closely tied to metabolism ( 9 ) and is regulated to maintain (in absence of lung disease) more or less normal arterial blood gas tensions ( 17 ). One can increase breathing

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Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin and Matthew David Cook

. , & Jürimäe , T. ( 2011 ). No effect of menstrual cycle phase on fuel oxidation during exercise in rowers . European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111 ( 6 ), 1027 – 1034 . PubMed ID: 21088972 doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1730-1 10.1007/s00421-010-1730-1 Venables , M.C. , Hulston , C.J. , Cox , H

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

adaptation to a NK-LCHF does not translate into clear improvements in endurance performance, except in specific scenarios or individuals ( Burke, 2015 ). Therefore, a microperiodization protocol which (theoretically) could sequentially enhance the capacity of both fat- and CHO-based fuel oxidation prior to

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

of CHO intake during session. • Sessions probably need to be at least 45–60 min in duration to exert a significant altered metabolic stress (significant changes in glucose and/or FFA, altering muscle fuel oxidation). • When undertaken according to typical patterns (e.g., morning session undertaken