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Benoit Capostagno and Andrew Bosch

This study examined the differences in fat and carbohydrate oxidation during running and cycling at the same relative exercise intensities, with intensity determined in a number of ways. Specifically, exercise intensity was expressed as a percentage of maximum workload (WLmax), maximum oxygen uptake (%VO2max), and maximum heart rate (%HRmax) and as rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten male triathletes performed maximal running and cycling trials and subsequently exercised at 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% of their WLmax. VO2, HR, RPE, and plasma lactate concentrations were measured during all submaximal trials. Fat and carbohydrate oxidation were calculated from VO2 and VCO2 data. A 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to determine any statistically significant differences between exercise modes. Fat oxidation was shown to be significantly higher in running than in cycling at the same relative intensities expressed as either %WLmax or %VO2max. Neither were there any significant differences in VO2max and HRmax between the 2 exercise modes, nor in submaximal VO2 or RPE between the exercise modes at the same %WLmax. However, heart rate and plasma lactate concentrations were significantly higher when cycling at 60% and 65% and 65–80%WLmax, respectively. In conclusion, fat oxidation is significantly higher during running than during cycling at the same relative intensity expressed as either %WLmax or %VO2max.

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Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall

overnight fast ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). Blood glucose represents a key fuel for the central nervous system, and a shortage of such fuel substrates can impair concentration, decision making, and skill execution while increasing perceptions of fatigue ( Welsh et al., 2002 ). The overconsumption of fat and

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

, speed, power) leads to an increase in metabolic cost, requiring augmented provision of fuel substrates and oxygen, challenging the cardiorespiratory and the metabolic systems. 6 In addition to these types of load stimuli, team-sport athletes are also challenged with accelerations and decelerations inducing a

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

fuel substrate during low- and moderate-intensity running, and/or when endogenous muscle glycogen stores become depleted. It is well established that fat oxidation, at a given running intensity, can be upregulated by appropriate training, or in response to dietary carbohydrate and fat manipulations

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

fuel substrate ( Stellingwerff & Cox, 2014 ), to support the immune system ( Peake et al., 2017 ), or to improve bioavailability of other supplements (e.g., creatine; Steenge et al., 2000 ). Similarly, creatine supplementation may directly enhance performance in strength and power events, and can