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Weihua Xiao, Peijie Chen, Jingmei Dong, Ru Wang, and Beibei Luo

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of overload training on the function of peritoneal macrophages in rats, and to test the hypothesis that glutamine in vivo supplementation would partly reverse the eventual functional alterations induced by overload training in these cells. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (C), overload training group (E1), overload training and restore one week group (E2), glutamine-supplementation group (EG1), and glutamine-supplementation and restore 1-week group (EG2). All rats, except those placed on sedentary control were subjected to 11 weeks of overload training protocol. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone, and corticosterone of rats were measured. Moreover, the functions (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytokines synthesis, reactive oxygen species generation) of peritoneal macrophages were determined. Data showed that blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone, corticosterone and body weight in the overload training group decreased significantly as compared with the control group. Meanwhile, the chemotaxis capacity (decreased by 31%, p = .003), the phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 27%, p = .005), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (decreased by 35%, p = .003) and the cytokines response capability of macrophages were inhibited by overload training. However, the hindering of phagocytosis and the cytokines response capability of macrophages induced by overload training could be ameliorated and reversed respectively, by dietary glutamine supplementation. These results suggest that overload training impairs the function of peritoneal macrophages, which is essential for the microbicidal actions of macrophages. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunodepression induced by overload training. Nonetheless, dietary glutamine supplementation could partly reverse the impaired macrophage function resulting from overload training.

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Ashley Kuzmik, Barbara Resnick, Pamela Cacchione, Rachel Arendacs, and Marie Boltz

Hospital-acquired disability (HAD), defined as functional loss that is acquired during hospitalization, occurs in over 30% of hospitalized adults age 65 and, with most older adults (70–80%) not returning to baseline function in mobility and other activities of daily living ( Buurman et al., 2011

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Karlee Burns, Leah Sanford, Ryan Tierney, and Jane McDevitt

-related mild traumatic brain injury in areas of the brain associated with memory function (e.g., hippocampus, prefrontal cortex) within approximately 1 year following the individuals last injury. ▸ Clinicians (e.g., athletic trainers, physicians) should be familiar with sport-related mild traumatic brain

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James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley, and Minsoo Kang

supported when the items from a PROM are relevant and logical for the outcome of interest. For example, a knee-specific PROM should only include items that measure knee-specific function. Evidence of structural validity can be supported through an examination of the relationship between examinees and their

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Sara Birch, Torben Bæk Hansen, Maiken Stilling, and Inger Mechlenburg

The majority of patients having a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) report large pain reduction and improvements in physical function and quality of life after TKA, but around 20% of the patients report persistent pain up to 6 months after the operation ( Beswick et al., 2012 ). Different causes for

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Jennifer F. Mullins, Arthur J. Nitz, and Matthew C. Hoch

history of ankle sprain, ongoing bouts of ankle instability, and a decrease in patient-perceived function. 7 CAI is closely linked to the development of ankle osteoarthritis, which is associated with decreased ankle movement, decreased ability to perform daily activities, limited physical activity, and

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Philippa J.A. Nicolson, Vicky Duong, Esther Williamson, Sally Hopewell, and Sarah E. Lamb

Statistics, 2012 ). Optimizing physical function, quality of life, and psychosocial outcomes among this group is essential to facilitate ongoing independence. Therapeutic exercise is participation in physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposeful for the improvement or maintenance

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Emily R. Hunt, Cassandra N. Parise, and Timothy A. Butterfield

the best and most current literature that measured the effects of conservative, nonoperative ACL treatment on quadriceps strength and patient-perceived function using isokinetic dynamometry, the single-leg hop test, or the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form. Focused

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James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley, and Minsoo Kang

Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) help clinicians evaluate patients’ perceptions of changes in their own health status. These tools are especially valuable for measuring attributes that cannot be directly measured, such as pain, or that are not pragmatic or feasible to measure (eg, function

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Konstantina Katsoulis, Liza Stathokostas, and Catherine E. Amara

functional decline, and indeed, muscle power has been shown to be a crucial determinant of function in older adults ( Reid & Fielding, 2012 ). An explosion of interest in studying muscle power and its role in age-related functional decline has occurred in recent years with the goal to elucidate the