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Richard E. Hughes, James C. Bean and Don B. Chaffin

Concurrent activation of muscles on opposite sides of joints is a common phenomenon. In simple planar mechanical systems, it is easy to identify such an electromyographic pattern as co-contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles. In complex 3-D systems such as the lumbar spine, it is more difficult to precisely identify whether EMG recordings represent co-contraction. Qualitative definitions of antagonist muscles emphasize that their actions wholly oppose the action of the prime movers. The qualitative definition of antagonist muscles was used to formulate a mathematical requirement for there to be co-contraction of agonists and antagonists. It was shown that the definition of co-contraction implies muscle activity beyond what is required to maintain equilibrium. The method was illustrated by classifying EMG recordings made of the lumbar region musculature during tasks involving combined torso extension and axial twisting loads. The method, which identified muscle activity in excess of that required to maintain static equilibrium, could be used to identify conditions in which muscle activation is required for something other than merely maintaining moment equilibrium.

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Louis M. Ferreira, Graham J.W. King and James A. Johnson

ligamentous contributions to the stability of the elbow joint . Am J Sports Med. 1983 ; 11 : 315 – 319 . PubMed doi: 10.1177/036354658301100506 10.1177/036354658301100506 6638246 11. Morrey BF , An KN . Functional anatomy of the ligaments of the elbow . Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1985 : 84 – 90

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Damien Moore, Adam I. Semciw, Jodie McClelland, Henry Wajswelner and Tania Pizzari

Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact . 2013 ; 13 ( 1 ): 1 – 12 . PubMed ID: 23445909 23445909 2. Al-Hayani A . The functional anatomy of hip abductors . Folia Morphol . 2009 ; 68 ( 2 ): 98 – 103 . PubMed ID: 19449297 3. Flack NA , Nicholson HD , Woodley SJ . A review of the anatomy of the hip abductor

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Matt Greig, Hannah Emmerson and John McCreadie

loading than the inversion or diagonal hop, suggesting merit in this progression during rehabilitation. The eversion hop produced a mediolateral loading greater than the anterior hop, but less than the inversion hop, and without statistical significance. This is perhaps due to functional anatomy with

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Alison M. Gardiner-Shires and Cristina B. Seffrin

management of lateral ankle sprains . J Athl Train . 2002 ; 37 ( 4 ): 430 – 435 . PubMed ID: 12937564 12937564 12. Hertel J . Functional anatomy, pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability . J Athl Train . 2002 ; 37 ( 4 ): 364 – 375 . PubMed ID: 12937557 12937557 13. Riemann

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Megan N. Houston, Johanna M. Hoch and Matthew C. Hoch

.2519/jospt.2015.6097 10.2519/jospt.2015.6097 13. Hertel J . Functional anatomy, pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability . J Athl Train . 2002 ; 37 ( 4 ): 364 – 375 . PubMed ID: 12937557 12937557 14. Houston MN , Van Lunen B , Hoch MC . Health-related quality of life in

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Sajad Bagherian, Nader Rahnama, Erik A. Wikstrom, Micheal A. Clark and Faroogh Rostami

. 2016 ; 44 ( 4 ): 995 – 1003 . PubMed doi:10.1177/0363546516628870 10.1177/0363546516628870 26912285 3. Hertel J . Functional anatomy, pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability . J Athl Train . 2002 ; 37 ( 4 ): 364 – 375 . PubMed 12937557 4. Hanci E , Sekir U , Gur H

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Max Pietrzak and Niels B.J. Vollaard

. Encoding of tensile stress and strain during stretch by muscle mechano-nociceptors . Muscle Nerve . 2004 ; 30 : 216 – 224 . PubMed doi:10.1002/mus.20096 15266638 10.1002/mus.20096 38. Mense S . Functional anatomy of muscle: muscle, nociceptors, and afferent fibers . In: Mense S , Gerwin R , eds

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Bin Chen, Yichao Zhao, Xianxin Cao, Guojiong Hu, Lincoln B. Chen and Wenxin Niu

: 27544451 doi: 10.1016/j.math.2016.08.001 27544451 29. Saha AK . Dynamic stability of the glenohumeral joint . Acta Orthop Scand . 1971 ; 42 : 491 – 505 . PubMed ID: 5144199 doi: 10.3109/17453677108989066 5144199 30. Peat M . Functional anatomy of the shoulder complex . Phys Ther . 1986 ; 66

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John McCleve, Luke Donovan, Christopher D. Ingersoll, Charles Armstrong and Neal R. Glaviano

survey on ankle sprain . Br J Sports Med . 1994 ; 28 ( 2 ): 112 – 116 . PubMed ID: 7921910 doi:10.1136/bjsm.28.2.112 10.1136/bjsm.28.2.112 7921910 5. Hertel J . Functional Anatomy, Pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability. J Athl Train . 2002 ; 37 ( 4 ): 364 – 375