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Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin and Beth Fisher

Recent neuroimaging research has demonstrated that resting-state intracortical connectivity (i.e., the shared communication between two brain regions) can serve as a robust predictor of motor performance and learning. Theoretically, direct modulation of resting-state intracortical connectivity within the motor system could then improve motor performance and learning. However, previous neuromodulation techniques such as repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation may be limited in the capacity to modulate targeted intracortical connectivity. Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS) has shown efficacy in facilitating connectivity primarily between the central and peripheral nervous system based on the neuroplasticity mechanism of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity. It may therefore be plausible for a reconfigured corticocortical PAS paradigm to modulate resting-state intracortical connectivity using a dual stimulator methodology over specific cortical nodes. However, potential theoretical and technological considerations of such a paradigm first need to be addressed prior to application for the purposes of manipulating motor behavior. We posit a corticocortical PAS paradigm used in conjunction with resting-state electroencephalography to demonstrate efficacy of potentiating motor learning associated resting-state intracortical connectivity within the human brain. Here we provide a precise PAS/EEG experimental design, details on data analysis, recommendations for maintaining scientific rigor, and preliminary proof of principle within a single-subject.

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Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers and Brendan S. Lay

.1037/0096-3445.137.2.201 18473654 5. Hocking C , Silberstein RB , Man W , Stough C , Roberts W . Evaluation of cognitive performance in the heat by functional brain imaging and psychometric testing . Comp Biochem Physiol Part A . 2001 ; 128 : 719 – 734 . doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(01)00278-1 10.1016/S1095

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Roel De Ridder, Tine Willems, Jos Vanrenterghem, Ruth Verrelst, Cedric De Blaiser and Philip Roosen

of Functional Brain Images? London, UK : Elsevier ; 2007 . 10.1016/B978-012372560-8/50002-4 29. De Ridder R , Willems T , Vanrenterghem J , Robinson MA , Palmans T , Roosen P . Multi-segment foot landing kinematics in subjects with chronic ankle instability . Clin Biomech

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić and Urho M. Kujala

markers of cognitive decline. 3 However, it is yet to be elucidated if PA and exercise do more than preserve the function in the vulnerable brain regions in the elderly. Still, it may be that PA is effective as a neuroprotective formula. In humans, studies using structural and functional brain imaging

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Ryota Nishiyori and Beverly D. Ulrich

functional brain imaging. One published study in which cortical activity was assessed in infants with DS showed lower levels of connectivity between brain areas, suggesting that synaptic flaws may, at least early in life, inhibit communication between important areas involved in motor skill acquisition

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Brice T. Cleland and Sheila Schindler-Ivens

; Cruz, Waldinger, & Kamper, 2005 ; Knutsson & Richards, 1979 ). Such changes in motor commands and motor performance are difficult to control, and they confound the interpretation of functional brain imaging data (for review, see Baron et al., 2004 ; Krakauer, 2007 ). For example, cross