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Maarten Vansteenkiste, Joke Simons, Bart Soenens and Willy Lens

The goal of the present study was to examine partially conflicting hypotheses derived from two motivational theories, namely self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000) and future time perspective theory (FTPT; Lens, 2001; Nuttin & Lens, 1985). In line with SDT, it was found that framing an exercise activity in terms of future intrinsic goal attainment (focusing on health and physical fitness) has a positive effect on effort expenditure, autonomous exercise motivation, performance, long-term persistence, and even sport club membership. On the other hand, framing an exercise activity in terms of future extrinsic goal attainment (focusing on physical appearance and attractiveness) undermined those outcomes compared to a no-future-goal control group. Correlational analyses indicate that future extrinsic goal framing led to non-autonomous persistence while future intrinsic goal framing resulted in autonomously driven perseverance at the free-choice activity. In contrast to FTPT, the no-future-goal control group did not differ from a future content-free goal group, in which the general future importance of the present task was stressed. Finally, presenting those goals in an autonomy-supportive rather than a controlling way resulted in the same motivational and behavioral benefits as future intrinsic goal framing. It is discussed how future time perspective theory and self-determination theory can be reconciled and integrated.

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Ann-Kristin Beyer, Maja Wiest and Susanne Wurm

health behavior ( Wurm, Diehl, Kornadt, Westerhof, & Wahl, 2017 ). Life span theories point to the subjective perception of lifetime—the concept of future time perspective according to socioemotional selectivity theory (SST)—as a motivational factor throughout adulthood ( Carstensen, Isaacowitz

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Anna Sverdlik, Robert J. Vallerand, Ariane St-Louis, Michael Sam Tion and Geneviève Porlier

. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3 ( 5 ), 400 – 424 . PubMed ID: 26158958 doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x Nutin , J. ( 1964 ). The future time perspective in human motivation and learning . Acta Psychologica, 23 , 60 – 82 . doi:10

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Ian David Boardley, Doris Matosic and Mark William Bruner

.13110/merrpalmquar1982.61.1.0101 10.13110/merrpalmquar1982.61.1.0101 Zacher , H. , & de Lange , A.H. ( 2011 ). Relations between chronic regulatory focus and future time perspective: Results of a cross-lagged structural equation model . Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1255 – 1260 . doi:10.1016/j

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Urska Arnautovska, Frances O’Callaghan and Kyra Hamilton

future time perspective is associated with making healthy lifestyle choices, such as engaging in physical exercise. In the health behavior change literature ( Schwarzer & Fuchs, 2005 ), a person’s belief in their ability to perform a behavior, a central component of self-efficacy, is one of the dominant

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Volker Cihlar and Sonia Lippke

.), Freiwilliges Engagement in Deutschland. Der Deutsche Freiwilligensurvey 2014 [Volunteering in Germany. The German Survey on Volunteering 2014] (pp. 51 – 88 ). Wiesbaden, Germany : Springer VS . Stahl , S.T. , & Patrick , J.H. ( 2011 ). Adult’s future time perspective predicts engagement in physical