Drawing from the theories of self-determination (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) achievement goals (AGT; Nicholls, 1989), and, in particular, Vallerand’s four-stage casual sequence embedded in his hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (HMIEM; Vallerand, 1997, 2001), this study tested a motivational model in the sport context via structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on the responses of 370 young male soccer players (M age = 14.77), the path analysis results offered overall support for the proposed model. A perceived task-involving climate emerged as a positive predictor of the satisfaction of the three psychological needs, while a perceived ego-involving climate was a negative predictor of related-ness satisfaction. The results also support positive paths between satisfaction of the three psychological needs and intrinsic motivation, while intrinsic motivation was positively linked to subjective vitality and future intention to participate. The implications of the coach-created motivational climate are discussed in the light of its implications for the quality and potential maintenance of sport involvement among young athletes.
María Sol Alvarez, Isabel Balaguer, Isabel Castillo, and Joan L. Duda
Susumu Iwasaki and Mary D. Fry
This study highlights how sport psychology professionals can assist sport administrators in evaluating and strengthening youth sport programs. A sport psychology research team provided expertise to two sport administrators to develop a survey to examine their athletes’ experiences participating in the programs. The study examines the relationship between athletes’ perceptions of the climate (caring, task, and ego involving) to their intrinsic motivation, caring behaviors, and future intention to participate in the sport. Volleyball clinic (Sample 1: N = 71) and basketball summer camp (Sample 2: N = 138) participants completed the survey. Canonical correlation analyses for each sample revealed one significant function indicating that the athletes’ perceptions of a caring/task-involving climate, along with low perceptions of an ego-involving climate, were associated with higher levels of intrinsic motivation, caring behaviors, and future desire to participate. Sport administrators can use this information for coach training, parent education and overall program evaluation.
Kleverton Krinski, Daniel G. S. Machado, Luciana S. Lirani, Sergio G. DaSilva, Eduardo C. Costa, Sarah J. Hardcastle, and Hassan M. Elsangedy
In order to examine whether environmental settings influence psychological and physiological responses of women with obesity during self-paced walking, 38 women performed two exercise sessions (treadmill and outdoors) for 30 min, where oxygen uptake, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, affect, attentional focus, enjoyment, and future intentions to walk were analyzed. Physiological responses were similar during both sessions. However, during outdoor exercise, participants displayed higher externally focused attention, positive affect, and lower ratings of perceived exertion, followed by greater enjoyment and future intention to participate in outdoor walking. The more externally focused attention predicted greater future intentions to participate in walking. Therefore, women with obesity self-selected an appropriate exercise intensity to improve fitness and health in both environmental settings. Also, self-paced outdoor walking presented improved psychological responses. Health care professionals should consider promoting outdoor forms of exercise to maximize psychological benefits and promote long-term adherence to a physically active lifestyle.
Waynne Ferreira de Faria, Renan Camargo Corrêa, Filipe Rodrigues Mendonça, Kleverton Krinski, and Antonio Stabelini Neto
, respectively. Fifteen minutes after the end of each session, the future intention to participate in combined physical exercise sessions was evaluated using a scale ranging from 0% to 100%: 0% (little interest), 50% (moderately interested), and 100% (very interested); at 4-time intervals: (1) tomorrow, (2) next