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Kimmery Migel and Erik Wikstrom

to contribute to aberrant gait biomechanics observed in those with CAI. More specifically, those with CAI demonstrate excessive inversion at heel strike and throughout stance as well as excessive inversion and plantar flexion in the swing phase of gait. 2 These impairments increase the risk of

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Jonathan S. Goodwin, Robert A. Creighton, Brian G. Pietrosimone, Jeffery T. Spang and J. Troy Blackburn

effective in younger individuals who more commonly experience traumatic cartilage injuries as a consequence of greater physical activity exposure and sport participation. Gait biomechanics in healthy, young adults are likely a better representation of individuals who sustain traumatic cartilage injuries but

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Jacob K. Gardner, Songning Zhang, Max R. Paquette, Clare E. Milner and Elizabeth Brock

The recent popularity of unstable shoes has sparked much interest in the efficacy of the shoe design. Anecdotal evidence suggests that earlier designs appear bulky and less aesthetically appealing for everyday use. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a second generation unstable shoe on center of pressure (COP), ground reaction force (GRF), kinematics, and kinetics of the ankle joint during level walking at normal and fast speeds. In addition, findings were compared with results from the first generation shoe. Fourteen healthy males performed five successful level walking trials in four testing conditions: walking in unstable and control shoes at normal (1.3 m/s) and fast (1.8 m/s) speeds. The unstable shoe resulted in an increase in mediolateral COP displacement, first peak vertical GRF loading rate, braking GRF, ankle eversion range of motion (ROM), and inversion moment; as well as a decrease in anteroposterior COP displacement, second peak vertical GRF, ankle plantarflexion ROM, and dorsiflexion moment. Only minor differences were found between the shoe generations. Results of the generational comparisons suggest that the lower-profile second generation shoe may be as effective at achieving the desired unstable effects while promoting a smoother transition from heel contact through toe off compared with the first generation shoe.

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Maureen I. Ogamba, Kari L. Loverro, Natalie M. Laudicina, Simone V. Gill and Cara L. Lewis

During pregnancy, the female body experiences structural changes, such as weight gain. As pregnancy advances, most of the additional mass is concentrated anteriorly on the lower trunk. The purpose of this study is to analyze kinematic and kinetic changes when load is added anteriorly to the trunk, simulating a physical change experienced during pregnancy. Twenty healthy females walked on a treadmill while wearing a custom made pseudo-pregnancy sac (1 kg) under 3 load conditions: sac-only condition, 10-lb condition (4.535 kg added anteriorly), and 20-lb condition (9.07 kg added anteriorly), used to simulate pregnancy in the second trimester and at full-term pregnancy, respectively. The increase in anterior mass resulted in kinematic changes at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk in the sagittal and frontal planes. In addition, ankle, knee, and hip joint moments normalized to baseline mass increased with increased load; however, these moments decreased when normalized to total mass. These kinematic and kinetic changes may suggest that women modify gait biomechanics to reduce the effect of added load. Furthermore, the increase in joint moments increases stress on the musculoskeletal system and may contribute to musculoskeletal pain.

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John D. McCamley, Eric L. Cutler, Kendra K. Schmid, Shane R. Wurdeman, Jason M. Johanning, Iraklis I. Pipinos and Sara A. Myers

disease on gait . J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci . 1999 ; 54 ( 7 ): B291 – B294 . PubMed ID: 10462161 doi:10.1093/gerona/54.7.B291 10.1093/gerona/54.7.B291 11. Chen SJ , Pipinos I , Johanning J , et al . Bilateral claudication results in alterations in the gait biomechanics at the hip and

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Mark E. Kasmer, Xue-cheng Liu, Kyle G. Roberts and Jason M. Valadao

Purpose:

To determine prevalence of heel strike in a midsize city marathon, if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender.

Methods:

Foot-strike classification (forefoot, midfoot, heel, or split strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1-km mark for 2112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon.

Results:

1991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n = 1865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (P < .0001), with more elite performers being less likely to heel strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher exact test. In addition, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test.

Conclusions:

The high prevalence of heel striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of most mid-distance to long-distance runners and, more important, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel-strike running pattern. This knowledge can help clinicians appropriately diagnose, manage, and train modifications of injured runners.

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Hyunjae Jeon and Abbey C. Thomas

regarding whether or not to use feedback gait retraining in treating PFP. Focused Clinical Question Is it beneficial to utilize feedback motion retraining in improving gait biomechanics, pain, and self-reported function on patients with PFP? Search Strategy A database search was conducted in July of 2017

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Jennifer M. Yentes, Jessie M. Huisinga, Sara A. Myers, Iraklis I. Pipinos, Jason M. Johanning and Nicholas Stergiou

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis resulting in intermittent claudication (IC) or leg pain during physical activity. Two drugs (cilostazol and pentoxifylline) are approved for treatment of IC. Our previous work has reported no significant differences in gait biomechanics before and after drug interventions when PAD patients walked without pain. However, it is possible that the drugs are more efficacious during gait with pain. Our aim was to use advanced biomechanical analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of these drugs while walking with pain. Initial and absolute claudication distances, joint kinematics, torques, powers, and gait velocity during the presence of pain were measured from 24 patients before and after 12 weeks of treatment with either cilostazol or pentoxifylline. We found no significant improvements after 12 weeks of treatment with either cilostazol or pentoxifylline on the gait biomechanics of PAD patients during pain. Our findings indicate that the medications cilostazol and pentoxifylline have reduced relevance in the care of gait dysfunction even during pain in patients with PAD.

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Hanatsu Nagano, Rezaul K. Begg, William A. Sparrow and Simon Taylor

Although lower limb strength becomes asymmetrical with age, past studies of aging effects on gait biomechanics have usually analyzed only one limb. This experiment measured how aging and treadmill surface influenced both dominant and nondominant step parameters in older (mean 74.0 y) and young participants (mean 21.9 y). Step-cycle parameters were obtained from 3-dimensional position/time data during preferred-speed walking for 40 trials along a 10 m walkway and for 10 minutes of treadmill walking. Walking speed (young 1.23 m/s, older 1.24 m/s) and step velocity for the two age groups were similar in overground walking but older adults showed significantly slower walking speed (young 1.26 m/s, older 1.05 m/s) and step velocity on the treadmill due to reduced step length and prolonged step time. Older adults had shorter step length than young adults and both groups reduced step length on the treadmill. Step velocity and length of older adults’ dominant limb was asymmetrically larger. Older adults increased the proportion of double support in step time when treadmill walking. This adaptation combined with reduced step velocity and length may preserve balance. The results suggest that bilateral analyses should be employed to accurately describe asymmetric features of gait especially for older adults.

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André G. P. Andrade, Janaine C. Polese, Leopoldo A. Paolucci, Hans-Joachim K. Menzel and Luci F. Teixeira-Salmela

Lower extremity kinetic data during walking of 12 people with chronic poststroke were reanalyzed, using functional analysis of variance (FANOVA). To perform the FANOVA, the whole curve is represented by a mathematical function, which spans the whole gait cycle and avoids the need to identify isolated points, as required for traditional parametric analyses of variance (ANOVA). The power variables at the ankle, knee, and hip joints, in the sagittal plane, were compared between two conditions: With and without walking sticks at comfortable and fast speeds. For the ankle joint, FANOVA demonstrated increases in plantar flexion power generation during 60–80% of the gait cycle between fast and comfortable speeds with the use of walking sticks. For the knee joint, the use of walking sticks resulted in increases in the knee extension power generation during 10–30% of the gait cycle. During both speeds, the use of walking sticks resulted in increased power generation by the hip extensors and flexors during 10–30% and 40–70% of the gait cycle, respectively. These findings demonstrated the benefits of applying the FANOVA approach to improve the knowledge regarding the effects of walking sticks on gait biomechanics and encourage its use within other clinical contexts.