Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes severe gait problems in relatively young individuals, yet there have been limited studies to quantitatively identify the specific gait parameters that are affected. The purpose of this study was to define any differences in biomechanical gait parameters between patients with MS and healthy controls. A total of 31 MS patients and 31 healthy controls were evaluated: joint torques and joint powers were calculated at the ankle, knee, and hip during the stance phase of gait. The self-selected walking velocity was used as a covariate in the analysis to ensure that group differences were not due to differences in walking velocity between the MS and healthy control groups. Reduced angular range, less joint torque, and reduced joint power were seen in patients with MS. We also found significant correlations between biomechanical gait parameters and EDSS score, which provides a clinical rating of disease severity. Our findings provide a quantitative assessment of the gait mechanics employed in patients with MS. The altered lower extremity mechanics observed in patients with MS reflect both a neurological and strength deficit compared with healthy controls during walking.
Jessie M. Huisinga, Kendra K. Schmid, Mary L. Filipi, and Nicholas Stergiou
Rachel M. Koldenhoven, Kelly Martin, Abbis H. Jaffri, Susan Saliba, and Jay Hertel
. There is potential that individuals with CAI have a greater reliance on vision during more complex tasks than balance such as walking. Alterations in walking gait mechanics have been well established in individuals with CAI compared with controls. 13 In brief, in the frontal plane, those with CAI have
John D. McCamley, Eric L. Cutler, Kendra K. Schmid, Shane R. Wurdeman, Jason M. Johanning, Iraklis I. Pipinos, and Sara A. Myers
reported in this pathological population 11 – 13 inhibit patients with PAD from normal forward movement. 15 Decreased ankle propulsion was suggested in one of the earliest studies to explore changes in gait mechanics in patients with PAD. 9 This study found the presence of PAD resulted in slower walking
Caleb D. Johnson and Irene S. Davis
height index. 1 , 3 – 6 However, flexibility of the foot arch has recently received more attention. One study showed that individuals with similar arch heights can display vastly different measures of arch flexibility. 7 Furthermore, these differences can result in different gait mechanics and ground
Peter S. Myers, Kerri S. Rawson, Elinor C. Harrison, Adam P. Horin, Ellen N. Sutter, Marie E. McNeely, and Gammon M. Earhart
People with Parkinson disease demonstrate increased gait variability, but the primary variability sources are poorly understood. People with Parkinson disease and freezing of gait (freezers) have greater gait impairments than people with Parkinson disease without freezing of gait (nonfreezers), which may relate to cerebellar dysfunction. Thirteen freezers and 31 nonfreezers completed backward, forward, and forward with dual task gait trials. Sagittal joint angle waveforms were extracted for the hip, knee, and ankle using 3D motion capture. Decomposition indices were calculated for the 3 joint combinations. Principal component analysis extracted variance sources from the joint waveforms. Freezers had significantly greater decomposition between hip–ankle (F 1,42 = 5.1, P = .03) and hip–knee (F 1,42 = 5.3, P = .03) movements. The principal component analysis did not differentiate freezers and nonfreezers; however, primary variance sources differed between conditions. Primary variance during forward and forward with dual task gait came from joint angle magnitude and peak angle timing. Backward gait showed primary variance from joint angle magnitude and range of motion. The results show that freezers decompose movement more than nonfreezers, implicating cerebellar involvement in freezing of gait. Primary variance differs between gait conditions, and tailoring gait interventions to address variability sources may improve intervention efficacy.
Erin M.R. Bigelow, Niell G. Elvin, Alex A. Elvin, and Steven P. Arnoczky
To determine whether peak vertical and horizontal impact accelerations were different while running on a track or on a treadmill, 12 healthy subjects (average age 32.8 ± 9.8 y), were fitted with a novel, wireless accelerometer capable of recording triaxial acceleration over time. The accelerometer was attached to a custom-made acrylic plate and secured at the level of the L5 vertebra via a tight fitting triathlon belt. Each subject ran 4 miles on a synthetic, indoor track at a self-selected pace and accelerations were recorded on three perpendicular axes. Seven days later, the subjects ran 4 miles on a treadmill set at the individual runner’s average pace on the track and the peak vertical and horizontal impact magnitudes between the track and treadmill were compared. There was no difference (P = .52) in the average peak vertical impact accelerations between the track and treadmill over the 4 mile run. However, peak horizontal impact accelerations were greater (P = .0012) on the track when compared with the treadmill. This study demonstrated the feasibility for long-term impact accelerations monitoring using a novel wireless accelerometer.
Courtney M. Butowicz, Julian C. Acasio, and Brad D. Hendershot
individuals with amputation demonstrated more trunk kinematic variability in the presence of wider strides compared with individuals without amputation, and it appears that performing a concurrent cognitive task while walking did not change trunk or gait mechanics. There were no differences between task
Jocelyn F. Hafer, Mark S. Miller, Jane A. Kent, and Katherine A. Boyer
Aging is associated with diminished neuromuscular function that may ultimately result in age-related changes in locomotion or mobility. While there is substantial evidence of changes in gait mechanics, 1 , 2 declines in muscle strength and power, 3 and high-velocity fatigue resistance with age, 4
Jongil Lim, Jiyeon Kim, Kyoungho Seo, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, and Sukho Lee
Emmerik, 2015 ), and physical ( Banducci et al., 2016 ) demands. Particularly, deficits in executive function and working memory ( Yogev-Seligmann, Hausdorff, & Giladi, 2008 ) during dual-task walking have been associated with changes in gait mechanics ( Lamberg & Muratori, 2012 ), including decreases in
Kelsey M. Rynkiewicz, Lauren A. Fry, and Lindsay J. DiStefano
than cases with bilateral symptoms. One case-control study has been published identifying gait mechanics as a possible indicator of CECS. Overstride during running and increased dorsiflexion angle at initial contact were exhibited by those who were accurately diagnosed with CECS. 7 These factors need