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Martine H.G. Verheul and Reint H. Geuze

Rhythmic interlimb coordination arises from the interaction of intrinsic dynamics and behavioral information, that is, intention, memory, or external information specifying the required coordination pattern. This study investigates the influence of the content of memorized behavioral information on coordination in musically experienced and inexperienced participants. These groups are hypothesized to have different intrinsic dynamics for this task. Stability was assessed in a switching task (variability and switching time). The in-phase, antiphase, and 90°-phase difference were specified in a neutral and an ecologically relevant manner. Musicians showed more stable coordination than nonmusicians did. No interaction effect was found with memorized behavioral information. Behavioral information showed an interaction effect with phase pattern on coordination variability, with the strongest effect for the 90°-phase pattern. Switching time was affected largely in line with the findings for coordination variability. Participants showed an intraindividual preference for one type of gallop and one type of switch strategy, suggesting different hand roles.

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Anderson Henry Pereira Feitoza, Rafael dos Santos Henrique, Lisa M. Barnett, Alessandro Hervaldo Nicolai Ré, Vítor Pires Lopes, E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson, Wivianne A. Cavalcante and Maria Teresa Cattuzzo

Materials and Procedure PMC was assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children (PMSC; Barnett, Vazou, et al., 2016 ), which evaluates PMC for fundamental motor skills: six locomotor skills (i.e., run, gallop, hop, leap, jumping forwards, and slide) and six ball

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Nancy Getchell, Susan McMenamin and Jill Whitall

This study examines gross motor coordination in children with and without learning disabilities using a dynamical systems perspective. In a dual motor task paradigm (walk/clap, gallop/clap), we measured and compared frequency and phase locking and consistency within and across trials in 12 children with learning disabilities and 12 age-matched typically developing children. In the walk/clap condition, groups differed in consistency and in entrainment (increased frequency of 4 limb coupling) over short-term practice. In the gallop/clap condition, groups differed in consistency; neither group showed entrainment. Comparisons within the LD group of participants with and without diagnosed visual-motor problems showed differences in classification, consistency, and entrainment. These results suggest that gross motor coordination tasks provide information about as well as a novel opportunity for early identification of learning disabilities.

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Kara K. Palmer and Ali Brian


The Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition (TGMD-2), is one of the most widely used measures of motor skill competence. The purpose of this study was to examine if differences in scores exist between expert and novice coders on the TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000).


Three coders, one expert and two novices, reviewed and scored young children’s (N = 43; Boys = 57%; Mage = 4.88, SD = 0.28) TGMD-2 data. The kappa statistic was used to determine agreement between expert and novice coders on the locomotor and object control subscale of the TGMD-2. Independent samples t tests and percent differences were then used to examine scoring differences for each of the twelve skills.


Results support that expert and novice coders do not demonstrate significant agreement when scoring the TGMD-2 except for when scoring the kick (t 41 = –1.3, p = .2) and the gallop (t 41= –1.7, p = .09).


This work demonstrates that more stringent or consistent training regimens are needed before allowing novices to code TGMD-2 data.

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Yucui Diao, Cuixiang Dong, Lisa M. Barnett, Isaac Estevan, Jing Li and Liu Ji

forehand strike of self-bounced ball, one hand stationary dribble, kick a stationary ball, two hands catch, overhand throw, and underhand throw) and six locomotor (run, gallop, hop, skip, horizontal jump, and slide) skills as the TGMD-3 ( Maeng, Webster, & Ulrich, 2016 ). In order to accommodate a younger

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Fotini Venetsanou, Irene Kossyva, Nadia Valentini, Anastasia-Evangelia Afthentopoulou and Lisa Barnett

) that matches the TGMD-3 ( Ulrich, 2014 ) was used. Seven questions of this version assess perceived object control skills (OC; bounce, catch, kick, overhead throw, underhand throw, two-hand strike, one-hand strike) and six assess locomotor skills (LOC; gallop, hop, jump, run, slide, skip). Each child

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Hyokju Maeng, E. Kipling Webster, E. Andrew Pitchford and Dale A. Ulrich

3–10 years. Several modifications were made to the TGMD-3 from previous editions ( Webster & Ulrich, 2017 ). In brief, the TGMD-3 is divided into two subtests: locomotor and ball skills. The locomotor subtest is composed of six skills: run, gallop, hop, skip, horizontal jump, and slide. The ball

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Isaac Estevan, Javier Molina-García, Gavin Abbott, Steve J. Bowe, Isabel Castillo and Lisa M. Barnett

movement skills (FMS) commonly include the subdomains of locomotion and object control skills ( Gallahue, Ozmun, & Goodway, 2012 ). For instance, the PMSC includes the motor tasks of locomotion (e.g., run, gallop, and slide) and object control skills (e.g., overarm throw, bounce, and kick a ball). This

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Stephanie C. Field, Christina B. Esposito Bosma and Viviene A. Temple

for children 3.0 to 10.11 years of age and include both locomotor skills and object control/ball skills subtests. Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition The TGMD-2 consists of six locomotor skills (gallop, hop, run, horizontal jump, slide, and leap) and six object control skills (overhand

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Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey and Con Burns

Development (kick, throw, strike, skip, jump, leap, gallop, bounce, catch, hop, slide, and run). Individual skill improvements ranged from 13.7% (in the run) to 36.3% (in the strike) ( Mitchell et al., 2013 ). Motor skill interventions most consistently associated with improvements in FMS have been identified