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Erika Rees-Punia, Alicia Holloway, David Knauft and Michael D. Schmidt

learning time. 10 Evidence suggests that children with more exposure to green space accumulate more MVPA, and that gardens specifically support an environment conducive to higher intensity physical activity in children. 11 , 12 In fact, time spent outdoors is one of the most consistently positive

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Melinda A. Solmon

got plenty of physical activity, but I was very weary by the time the entire pile had been relocated. The companionship of the day and the great meal that followed made the physical labor well worth it. Cathy was a gardener extraordinaire and the care with which she tended her gardens was a reflection

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Mark A. Grey

This article considers the role of sports in relations among immigrant and established-resident minority and Anglo students in Garden City, Kansas, High School. Sports activities form the most direct link between the school and community, and many Garden City residents consider sport to be one of the school’s most important functions. Many perceive sports, particularly football, as a catalyst for successful academic school years. However, emphasis on student participation in sport works to alienate those who do not take part. Student participation in established sports and other school activities is encouraged under the pretext that students will more readily establish an identity with the school. Because most immigrant and many other minority students are not involved in established American sports, and do not even attend games, they risk being perceived as unwilling to assimilate on “American” terms, and they are generally given lower status in the school’s social hierarchy.

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Jemma L. Hawkins, Alexander Smith, Karianne Backx and Deborah A. Clayton

Previous research has suggested that gardening activity could be an effective form of regular exercise for improving physical and psychological health in later life. However, there is a lack of data regarding the exercise intensities of various gardening tasks across different types of gardening and different populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise intensity of gardening activity for older adult allotment gardeners in Wales, United Kingdom following a similar procedure used in previous studies conducted in the United States and South Korea by Park and colleagues (2008a; 2011). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure for six gardening tasks were measured via indirect calorimetery using the portable Oxycon mobile device. From these measures, estimated metabolic equivalent units (METs) were calculated. Consistent with Park et al. (2008a; 2011) the six gardening tasks were classified as low to moderate-high intensity physical activities based on their metabolic values (1.9–5.7 METs).

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Seoha Min, Sumin Koo and Jennifer Wilson

emotional benefits of horticultural activities. Specifically, Park, Shoemaker, and Haub ( 2009 ) found that certain physical abilities, such as hand strength and pinching force, were higher in gardeners than in nongardeners. Collins and O’Callaghan’s ( 2008 ) study found that the gardeners participating in

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Tuo-Yu Chen and Megan C. Janke

This study examines whether participation in gardening predicts reduced fall risk and performance on balance and gait-speed measures in older adults. Data on adults age 65 and older (N = 3,237) from the Health and Retirement Study and Consumption and Activities Mail Survey were analyzed. Participants who spent 1 hr or more gardening in the past week were defined as gardeners, resulting in a total of 1,585 gardeners and 1,652 nongardeners. Independent t tests, chi square, and regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between gardening and health outcomes. Findings indicate that gardeners reported significantly better balance and gait speed and had fewer chronic conditions and functional limitations than nongardeners. Significantly fewer gardeners than nongardeners reported a fall in the past 2 yr. The findings suggest that gardening may be a potential activity to incorporate into future fall-prevention programs.

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Beth M. Myers and Nancy M. Wells


Gardens are a promising intervention to promote physical activity (PA) and foster health. However, because of the unique characteristics of gardening, no extant tool can capture PA, postures, and motions that take place in a garden.


The Physical Activity Research and Assessment tool for Garden Observation (PARAGON) was developed to assess children’s PA levels, tasks, postures, and motions, associations, and interactions while gardening. PARAGON uses momentary time sampling in which a trained observer watches a focal child for 15 seconds and then records behavior for 15 seconds. Sixty-five children (38 girls, 27 boys) at 4 elementary schools in New York State were observed over 8 days. During the observation, children simultaneously wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers.


The overall interrater reliability was 88% agreement, and Ebel was .97. Percent agreement values for activity level (93%), garden tasks (93%), motions (80%), associations (95%), and interactions (91%) also met acceptable criteria. Validity was established by previously validated PA codes and by expected convergent validity with accelerometry.


PARAGON is a valid and reliable observation tool for assessing children’s PA in the context of gardening.

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Don Morrow

Just before Canadiens and Leafs played at Maple Leaf Gardens Saturday night [March 7, 1936], the teams lined up at the centre ice opposite each other and the audience rose with bared heads and stood in silence while the big clock ticked off one minute« It was another testimonial to the memory of the late Lou Marsh.1

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Russell Field

first profiles Canada’s two most iconic twentieth-century arenas—Toronto’s Maple Leaf Gardens (built in 1931) and the Montreal Forum (1924)—before a subsequent chapter turns its attention to NHL arenas in the US and an extended consideration of Madison Square Garden (and its third iteration, built in