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Anne Delextrat, Sinead Mackessy, Luis Arceo-Rendon, Aaron Scanlan, Roger Ramsbottom, and Julio Calleja-Gonzalez

; Miller et al., 2016 ). These discrepancies could be explained by various exercise protocols ( Afman et al., 2014 ), dosage ( Douroudos et al., 2006 ), gastrointestinal (GI) problems ( Burke & Pyne, 2007 ), or suboptimal timings of ingestion/individual variation in response to supplementation ( Sparks et

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky, and Martin D. Hoffman

) provide general guidance on race nutrition logistics, including the prevention and management of running-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. Physiological Demands Considering the multifactorial demands and challenges of competitive ultramarathon running, a wide array of factors underpin performance outcome

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Isabella Russo, Paul A. Della Gatta, Andrew Garnham, Judi Porter, Louise M. Burke, and Ricardo J.S. Costa

, carbohydrate availability indirectly influences hydration status, net protein balance, immune and gastrointestinal function, all of which have implications for recovery optimization 3 ; but in the context of gastrointestinal and immune status have generally been neglected in recovery research. 6 For example

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Nathan Philip Hilton, Nicholas Keith Leach, Melissa May Craig, S. Andy Sparks, and Lars Robert McNaughton

Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances are widely reported following sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplementation ( Burke & Pyne, 2007 ; Cameron et al., 2010 ; Kahle et al., 2013 ), and although the etiology of GI disturbances involves multiple mechanisms, the neutralization of gastric acid is

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Pascale Young, Samantha K. Gill, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Stephanie Gaskell, Isabella Russo, and Louise M. Burke

Exercise-associated gastrointestinal symptoms (Ex-GIS), such as abdominal pain and nausea, have been reported in the scientific literature for almost a century ( Burgess et al., 1924 ). However, awareness of disturbances to the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequent instigation of Ex-GIS, as a

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Alice M. Wallett, Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Philo U. Saunders, Marijke Welvaert, Julien D. Périard, Andrew J. McKune, and David B. Pyne

Engaging in moderate- to high-intensity exercise can increase the presence of systemic inflammatory biomarkers associated with alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) permeability. 1 Prolonged (>60 min) steady-state exercise can also increase GI permeability, even in well-trained individuals, 2 and

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Iyed Salhi, Abderraouf Ben Aabderrahman, Raoua Triki, Cain C.T. Clark, Sabri Gaed, Anthony C. Hackney, Ayoub Saeidi, Ismail Laher, Jennifer A. Kurtz, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, and Hassane Zouhal

oxyntomodulin [OXN]). 10 , 11 The relationship between anthropometric characteristics and gastrointestinal hormone responses in team sports has not been extensively studied. 12 For example, a study by Plinta et al 13 reported that regular moderate aerobic training by young female professional basketball and

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Andy J. King, Joshua T. Rowe, and Louise M. Burke

effect of the mode and intensity of exercise on gastrointestinal (GI) comfort and function ( de Oliveira & Burini, 2009 ), the role of specific “gut training” ( Cox et al., 2010 ), and characteristics of the CHO source. Here it has been shown that the use of CHO blends (“multiple transportable CHO” such

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Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Maree Gleeson, Alice Wallett, Warren A. McDonald, Kate L. Pumpa, and David B. Pyne

Endurance exercise in combination with heat exposure challenges many physiological functions, including the gastrointestinal (GI) system. GI discomfort can affect > 60% of individuals engaged in endurance events ( Jeukendrup et al., 2000 ; Stuempfle, Hoffman, & Hew-Butler, 2013 ), which can

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Charles S. Urwin, Rodney J. Snow, Dominique Condo, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Glenn D. Wadley, Lilia Convit, and Amelia J. Carr

between the supplements with regard to the number and severity of associated gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), which may influence their efficacy for athletes. Prior investigations of SB or SC supplementation have identified that both induce blood alkalosis compared with baseline or placebo ( Hilton et