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A Comparison of Sodium Citrate and Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion: Blood Alkalosis and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

Charles S. Urwin, Rodney J. Snow, Dominique Condo, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Glenn D. Wadley, Lilia Convit, and Amelia J. Carr

between the supplements with regard to the number and severity of associated gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), which may influence their efficacy for athletes. Prior investigations of SB or SC supplementation have identified that both induce blood alkalosis compared with baseline or placebo ( Hilton et

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Test–Retest Reliability of a Modified Visual Analog Scale Assessment Tool for Determining Incidence and Severity of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Response to Exercise Stress

Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, and Ricardo J.S. Costa

Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are a common feature of exercise, with prevalence data suggesting intensity and duration of exercise as major influential factors in the magnitude of GIS incidence and severity ( Costa et al., 2017c ). Consistently, >60% of ultraendurance athletes report GIS during

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Hydrogel Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Beverage Does Not Improve Glucose Availability, Substrate Oxidation, Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Exercise Performance, Compared With a Concentration and Nutrient-Matched Placebo

Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell, and Ricardo J.S. Costa

-associated gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS; Jeukendrup, 2014 ). More recently, there has been a focus on additional ingredients in CES to further improve gastric emptying, minimize GIS, and enhance carbohydrate absorption and oxidation during exercise ( Sutehall et al., 2018 ). Through the addition of alginate and pectin

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Induced Alkalosis and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Sodium Citrate Ingestion: a Dose-Response Investigation

Charles S. Urwin, Dan B. Dwyer, and Amelia J. Carr

Sodium citrate induces alkalosis and can provide a performance benefit in high-intensity exercise. Previous investigations have been inconsistent in the ingestion protocols used, in particular the dose and timing of ingestion before the onset of exercise. The primary aim of the current study was to quantify blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration and gastrointestinal symptoms after ingestion of three doses of sodium citrate (500 mg⋅kg-1, 700 mg⋅kg-1 and 900 mg⋅kg-1). Thirteen participants completed four experimental sessions, each consisting of a different dose of sodium citrate or a taste-matched placebo solution. Blood pH and blood bicarbonate concentration were measured at 30-min intervals via analysis of capillary blood samples. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also monitored at 30-min intervals. Statistical significance was accepted at a level of p < .05. Both measures of alkalosis were significantly greater after ingestion of sodium citrate compared with placebo (p < .001). No significant differences in alkalosis were found between the three sodium citrate doses (p > .05). Peak alkalosis following sodium citrate ingestion ranged from 180 to 212 min after ingestion. Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher after sodium citrate ingestion compared with placebo (p < .001), while the 900 dose elicited significantly greater gastrointestinal distress than 500 mg⋅kg-1 (p = .004). It is recommended that a dose of 500 mg⋅kg-1 of sodium citrate should be ingested at least 3 hr before exercise, to achieve peak alkalosis and to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms before and during exercise.

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The Impact of a Dairy Milk Recovery Beverage on Bacterially Stimulated Neutrophil Function and Gastrointestinal Tolerance in Response to Hypohydration Inducing Exercise Stress

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Vera Camões-Costa, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, David Dixon, Isabella Russo, and Zoya Huschtscha

-debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS; Costa et al., 2017a ). With this in mind, it has previously been shown that consuming a CHO (1.2 g CHO/kg body mass [BM]) recovery beverage, with or without protein (PRO; 0.4 g PRO/kg BM), from supplement-based ingredients (i.e., maltodextrin and soya PRO) immediately after 2 hr of

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Applying a Low-FODMAP Dietary Intervention to a Female Ultraendurance Runner With Irritable Bowel Syndrome During a Multistage Ultramarathon

Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

population ( Lovell & Ford, 2012 ). IBS has also been reported among exercising populations; including in endurance athletes ( Diduch, 2017 ; Heiman et al., 2008 ). Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) experienced by individuals with IBS mimic those commonly reported by non-IBS athletes during and after

Open access

Assessment of Exercise-Associated Gastrointestinal Perturbations in Research and Practical Settings: Methodological Concerns and Recommendations for Best Practice

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Pascale Young, Samantha K. Gill, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Stephanie Gaskell, Isabella Russo, and Louise M. Burke

Exercise-associated gastrointestinal symptoms (Ex-GIS), such as abdominal pain and nausea, have been reported in the scientific literature for almost a century ( Burgess et al., 1924 ). However, awareness of disturbances to the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequent instigation of Ex-GIS, as a

Open access

Amino Acid-Based Beverage Interventions Ameliorate Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Response to Exertional-Heat Stress: The Heat Exertion Amino Acid Technology (HEAAT) Study

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Kayla Henningsen, Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rebekah Alcock, Alice Mika, Christopher Rauch, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Phil Blazy, and Robert Kenefick

It has been well established that exertional stress promotes perturbations to gastrointestinal integrity and functional responses, potentially leading to gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), and further clinical complications as a result of exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (EIGS), previously

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Factors Influencing Blood Alkalosis and Other Physiological Responses, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, and Exercise Performance Following Sodium Citrate Supplementation: A Review

Charles S. Urwin, Rodney J. Snow, Dominique Condo, Rhiannon Snipe, Glenn D. Wadley, and Amelia J. Carr

.J. ( 2016 ). Induced alkalosis and gastrointestinal symptoms after sodium citrate ingestion: A dose–response investigation . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 26 ( 6 ), 542 – 548 . PubMed ID: 27098485 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0336 10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0336 Urwin , C

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The Impact of a Short-Term Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet on Biomarkers of Intestinal Epithelial Integrity and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

Alannah K.A. McKay, Alice M. Wallett, Andrew J. McKune, Julien D. Périard, Philo Saunders, Jamie Whitfield, Nicolin Tee, Ida A. Heikura, Megan L.R. Ross, Avish P. Sharma, Ricardo J.S. Costa, and Louise M. Burke

endotoxins ( Costa et al., 2022 ). The consequences of local and systemic inflammatory effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) which may impair performance or require withdrawal from the exercise activity. Investigations into the effects of macronutrient intake on epithelial tight-junction integrity