traditional sport journalist functioning as a gatekeeper. When sport journalists enjoyed their gatekeeping position, media-relations staffers needed journalists more than vice versa. This was due to the scarcity of space and time to disseminate mass-media messages. Until the emergence of the Internet and
Mark Lowes and Christopher Robillard
Daniel A. Gruber
This article presents a case study of the developments in media gatekeeping in the last 10 years, focusing on the launch of the Tennis Channel and the ascendance of ESPN as the major network for professional tennis in the United States. The U.S. broadcast networks NBC and CBS have ceded the exclusive television rights for 2 of the Grand Slam tournaments (Wimbledon, U.S. Open) to ESPN for the first time in over 40 years. Meanwhile, the Tennis Channel, despite its independence from the media conglomerates, has carved out a niche for fans with its extensive global coverage of tournaments and for advertisers with its lucrative audience demographics. This change in dominance after the broadcast networks reigned for over 4 decades underscores the globalization of the sport and the abundance of early-round tournament matches available to fans. Organizational theories are used to analyze what has occurred and to predict what will happen next for tennis media gatekeeping in the United States.
Qingru Xu and Andrew C. Billings
influenced by the personal beliefs and experience of the gatekeeper. Shoemaker ( 1991 ) further developed the theory by proposing that, beyond media workers’ personal preferences, gatekeeping practices are also influenced by newsroom routines, organizational characteristics, institutional factors, and the
Sada Reed and Kathleen A. Hansen
Using gatekeeping theory as a conceptual framework, this study examines social media’s influence on American sports journalists’ perception of gatekeeping, particularly sports journalists who cover elite sports. Seventy-seven print sports journalists covering professional sports were asked if their definition of gatekeeper has changed since they began using social media for news-gathering purposes. Thirty-six participants did not think their definition of gatekeeper had changed. The 26 respondents who did think it had changed were asked to explain how. Responses were coded into 1 of the 5 categories in Shoemaker and Reese’s Hierarchy of Influences model—individual, media routines, organization, extramedia, and ideological. Results suggest that for practitioners who do believe there has been a change, they see social media as changing their day-in, day-out job routines, as opposed to extramedia influences.
Andrew C. Billings, Paul J. MacArthur, Simon Licen and Dan Wu
Media renderings of the Olympics continue to offer opportunities for hypernationalism. This study analyzes the same basketball game (U.S. vs. China in men’s basketball at the 2008 Summer Olympics) through the lens of 4 different telecasts in the United States, China, Slovenia, and Canada. Results illuminate us/them and collectivist/individualist dichotomies, differing themes of redemption and expectation, and stark contrasts in network style and content in game coverage. Ramifications for theory, fans, and network gatekeepers are postulated.
Makayla Hipke and Frauke Hachtmann
This study used a case-study approach to develop an understanding of how social-media strategy is developed and deployed in Big Ten Conference athletic departments and to explore the issues associated with it. Based on in-depth interviews with department officials, the following 6 themes emerged: connecting with target audiences, varied approaches in coordination of postings, athletic communications as content gatekeepers, desire to incorporate sponsors and generate revenue, focusing on building fan loyalty through engagement, and challenges of negativity and metrics. The social-media strategy in Big Ten Conference athletic departments appears to be driven by athletic communications/sports information departments as opposed to marketing departments. The greatest benefit of social media has been the ease of engagement and instantaneous connection between fans and the teams they love, which can lead to building greater loyalty to a team. Some of the challenges departments face include having to deal with the reality of crises and negative attention around programs more quickly than with traditional media and to measure social-media success accurately.
Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel
convenience sampling rather than randomization. There are several barriers to developing effective partnerships with gatekeepers. Some of these challenges are rooted in concerns that researchers have different goals than sport professionals. For example, the impression may be that research is conducted for
Josephine Blagrave and Taylor Guy
, and have learning disabilities. Chapter 8 concludes part 2 of the textbook with an overview of recruitment strategies and provides an overview of the potential challenges with identifying, recruiting, and communicating with gatekeepers such as parents and other stakeholders who could help or hinder
Daniel C. Funk
.” One important aspect to achieve a goal is an association’s official journal. Within each journal are editorial board members that function as gatekeepers who make judgments about the value of scholarship ( Braun, Dióspatonyi, Zádor, & Zsindely, 2007 ). As gatekeepers, they are critical to spreading
. Unfortunately, in promoting a localized approach the authors could have provided more analysis from Zambian adults because adults act as gatekeepers to participation. Lindsey et al. do provide analyses centered on the impacts of SfD perceived by young Zambian. Themes indicate that young people had different