come as a surprise that experts show a distinct gaze behavior in their sport that differs from that of less-experienced athletes ( Mann, Williams, Ward, & Janelle, 2007 ). For example, Williams and Davids ( 1998 ) found that skilled soccer players in a defensive situation shift their gaze more often
Thomas Hausegger, Christian Vater and Ernst-Joachim Hossner
Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, Itay Basevitch and Gershon Tenenbaum
, 2007 ). However, most of the research pertaining to gaze behavior and visual attention has been conducted under laboratory settings and focused on self-paced tasks (e.g., Vine, Moore, & Wilson, 2011 ). In addition, in the case of tennis, most gaze behavior studies targeted the server’s kinematics as
Greg Wood, Samuel J. Vine, Johnny Parr and Mark R. Wilson
The ability to predict the mental state and behavioral intentions of others from their gaze direction has been fundamental to our evolutionary success ( Emery, 2000 ). Accordingly, humans have developed a predisposition to focus on the gaze direction of others when attempting to interpret and
John van der Kamp
This study investigated whether soccer penalty-takers can exploit predictive information from the goalkeeper’s actions. Eight low- and seven high-skilled participants kicked balls in a penalty task with the goalkeeper’s action displayed on a large screen. The goalkeeper initiated his dive either before, at or after the ball was struck. The percentage of balls shot to the empty half of the goal was not above chance when the participants could only rely on predictive information. Gaze patterns suggested that the need to fixate the target location to maintain aiming accuracy hindered perceptual anticipation. It is argued that penalty-takers should select a target location in advance of the run-up to the ball and disregard the goalkeeper’s actions.
André Klostermann, Ralf Kredel and Ernst-Joachim Hossner
To date, despite a large body of evidence in favor of the advantage of an effect-related focus of attention compared with a movement-related focus of attention in motor control and learning, the role of vision in this context remains unclear. Therefore, in a golf-putting study, the relation between attentional focus and gaze behavior (in particular, quiet eye, or QE) was investigated. First, the advantage of an effect-related focus, as well as of a long QE duration, could be replicated. Furthermore, in the online-demanding task of golf putting, high performance was associated with later QE offsets. Most decisively, an interaction between attentional focus and gaze behavior was revealed in such a way that the efficiency of the QE selectively manifested under movement-related focus instructions. As these findings suggest neither additive effects nor a causal chain, an alternative hypothesis is introduced explaining positive QE effects by the inhibition of not-to-be parameterized movement variants.
Christopher M. Janelle, Charles H. Hillman, Ross J. Apparies, Nicholas P. Murray, Launi Meili, Elizabeth A. Fallon and Bradley D. Hatfield
The purpose of this study was to examine whether variability in gaze behavior and cortical activation would differentiate expert (n = 12) and nonexpert (n = 13) small-bore rifle shooters. Spectral-activity and eye-movement data were collected concurrently during the course of a regulation indoor sequence of 40 shots from the standing position. Experts exhibited significantly superior shooting performance, as well as a significantly longer quiet eye period preceding shot execution than did nonexperts. Additionally, expertise interacted with hemispheric activation levels: Experts demonstrated a significant increase in left-hemisphere alpha and beta power, accompanied by a reduction in right-hemisphere alpha and beta power, during the preparatory period just prior to the shot. Nonexperts exhibited similar hemispheric asymmetry, but to a lesser extent than did experts. Findings suggest systematic expertise-related differences in ocular and cortical activity during the preparatory phase leading up to the trigger pull that reflects more optimal organization of the neural structures needed to achieve high-level performance.
Werner F. Helsen, Janet L. Starkes and Martinus J. Buekers
This experiment addresses the coordination of point of gaze (PG) and hand movements in a speeded aiming task to predictable targets of three different eccentricities (35, 40, and 45 cm). In each condition subjects moved the eyes, head, trunk, and hand freely. Performance was assessed on 5 blocks of 5 trials. Analyses were conducted for (a) frequencies for initiation order of PG and the hand, (b) correlation between initiation latencies of PG and the hand, and (c) initiation, movement, and response times of PG and the hand. PG always arrived on target in advance of the hand and at approximately 50% of the response time of the hand (proportional time).Varying eccentricity increased initiation time of PG but not of the hand. With learning there was an initial temporal improvement and decreased variability of response within the first 10 trials, and with additional practice response times were further reduced. The importance of proportional time and its relationship to the first submovement in aiming are discussed.
Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman and Daniela Corbetta
We used eye tracking to investigate where infants and adults directed their gaze on a scene right before reaching. Infants aged 5, 7, 9, and 11 months old and adults looked at a human hand holding an object out of reach for 5 s, then the hand moved the object toward the participant for reaching. We analyzed which part of the scene (the object, the hand, or elsewhere) infants and adults attended the most during those 5 s before reaching. Findings revealed that adults’ visual fixations were majorly focused on the object to reach. Young infants’ looking patterns were more widely distributed between the hand holding the object, the object, and other nonrelevant areas on the scene. Despite distributed looking on the scene, infants increased their amount of time looking at the object between 5 and 11 months. Nine- and 11-month-olds showed overall accumulated looking durations comparable to adults’ for most of the objects; however, 9-month-olds differed in their rate of gaze transition between scene areas. From the age of 5 months old, infants are able to sustain their gaze to the pertinent scene area when the scene contains a central object on which they will later be able to act.
Guoxiao Sun, Liwei Zhang, Samuel J. Vine and Mark R. Wilson
Longer quiet eye (QE) periods are associated with better performance across a range of targeting and interceptive tasks. However, the direction of this relationship is still unclear. The two studies presented aimed to narrow this knowledge gap by experimentally manipulating QE duration—by delaying its onset or by truncating its offset—in an aiming interceptive task. In Experiment 1, the early trajectory was occluded, causing significantly shorter QE durations and worse subsequent performance. In Experiment 2, both early and/or late trajectory were occluded. Performance was degraded by the occlusion of either early or late information, and the worst performance occurred when both the early and late trajectory were occluded. Taken together, the results suggest that QE is not a by-product of performance but instead plays a causal role in supporting the interception of a moving target through a combination of preprogramming and online control processes.
Judy Davidson and Michelle Helstein
This paper compares two hockey-related breast-flashing events that occurred in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The first was performed by Calgary Flames fans, the ‘Flamesgirls’, in the 2004 NHL Stanley Cup final, and the second flashing event occurred when members and fans of the Booby Orr hockey team participated in lifting their shirts and jerseys at a lesbian hockey tournament at the 2007 Outgames/Western Cup held in Calgary. We deploy an analysis of visual psychic economies to highlight psychoanalytic framings of masculinized and feminized subject positions in both heteronormative and lesbigay-coded sporting spaces. We suggest there is a queer twist to the Booby Orr flashing context, which we read as disruptive and potentially resistive. The paper ends by turning to Avery Gordon’s (1997) Ghostly Matters, to consider how even in its queer transgression, the Booby Orr flashing scene is simultaneously haunted and saturated by the absent presence of colonial technologies of visuality and sexual violence. It is argued that in this case, openings for transgressive gender dynamics might be imaginable—even as those logics themselves are disciplined and perhaps made possible through racialized colonial framings of appropriate desire.