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Thomas Hausegger, Christian Vater, and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

during saccades ( Kowler, 2011 ). Therefore, one’s gaze should be focused toward a specific location. Such a “gaze-anchoring” behavior can be seen as a strategy to monitor all relevant information regions within the visual field. For instance, in combat sports whereby the extremities are used for attack

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Miya K. Rand and George E. Stelmach

This study examined how aging compromises coordinative eye-hand movements with multiple segments. Older adults and young controls performed two-segment movements with the eyes only or with the eyes and hand together. The results showed minimal age-related changes on the initiation and execution of primary saccade during the first segment. However, the older adults showed a scaling problem of saccade velocity when hand movements were included. They were also slow in stabilizing gaze fixation to the first target. Regarding hand movements, the older adults pronouncedly increased the deceleration phase compared with the controls while fixating their gazes to the target. They also increased the intersegment interval for both eye and hand movements. Taken together, aging differentially affects various components of movements, which contributes to the slowness of overall performance.

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Melvyn Roerdink, Paulina J. M. Bank, C. (Lieke) E. Peper, and Peter J. Beek

Rhythmic limb movements are often anchored at particular points in the movement cycle. Anchoring may reveal essential task-specific information for motor control. We examined the effect of tracking mode (in-phase, antiphase) and gaze direction (left, right) on anchoring in visuomotor tracking with and without concurrent visual feedback of the hand movement. For in-phase tracking, anchoring was observed at the foveated reversal point whereas for antiphase tracking anchoring was observed at both reversals, suggesting the presence of two reference points instead of one. Anchoring at the foveated reversal reflected gaze anchoring (i.e., coalignment of hand and gaze) while anchoring at the nonfoveated reversal reflected visuomotor synchronization (i.e., the hand was steered to the nonfoveated reversal coincident with a target reversal at the point of gaze). We propose that the number and location of anchor points play a crucial role in the underlying control by providing reference values for error correction processes.

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Derek Panchuk and Michael Maloney

, such as gaze anchor strategies while manipulating information in the peripheral field ( Klostermann et al., 2020 ). A gaze anchor describes a strategy where the performer anchors their gaze on a central location (make fewer fixations for longer periods of time; Afonso et al., 2012 ; Vaeyens et

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Mark Hollands, Fuengfa Khobkhun, Amornpan Ajjimaporn, Rebecca Robins, and Jim Richards

maintenance of balance during the potentially destabilizing postural reorganization at the onset of the turning movement. Gaze anchoring on salient environmental features via combined head rotations and saccadic eye movements is likely similar to the alternating saccade and fixation strategy employed during

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Alessandro Piras, Matthew A. Timmis, Aurelio Trofè, and Milena Raffi

( Williams et al., 2004 ). Indeed, when the opponent is closer to the observer and time pressure increases, the opponent’s body (i.e., the kicker’s legs) could turn into a gaze anchor ( Piras, Pierantozzi, & Squatrito, 2014 ), where saccades are reduced, and the fovea is not the only important aspect to

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Johannes Meyer, Frowin Fasold, Karsten Schul, Matthias Sonnenschein, and Stefanie Klatt

additional option. While the eyes and head orientation may provide relevant information about the offensive players’ intentions, it seems possible that the fixation location reflected a gazeanchoring” strategy from which information for anticipation is extracted ( Vater et al., 2020 ). In contrast to the

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Thomas Romeas, Basil More-Chevalier, Mathieu Charbonneau, and François Bieuzen

critical perception-action situations and has led to nonconclusive results ( Klostermann & Moeinirad, 2020 ). Importantly, combat sport experts seem to gaze at the head and torso, adopting a gaze anchoring strategy, while novices are more focused on the forehand and pelvis part of the opponent ( Hausegger

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Laurence S. Warren-West and Robin C. Jackson

.M. , & Hossner , E.–J . ( 2020 ). What do we see out of the corner of our eye? The role of visual pivots and gaze anchors in sport . International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13 ( 1 ), 81 – 103 . doi:10.1080/1750984X.2019.1582082 10.1080/1750984X.2019.1582082 Williams , A.M. , & Davids , K

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Greg Wood, Samuel J. Vine, Johnny Parr, and Mark R. Wilson

.F. , & Bekkering , H. ( 2001 ). Gaze anchoring to a pointing target is present during the entire pointing movement and is driven by a non-visual signal . Journal of Neurophysiology, 86 ( 2 ), 961 – 970 . PubMed 10.1152/jn.2001.86.2.961 Newsome , L.R. ( 1972 ). Visual angle and apparent size of objects in