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Gaze Behaviors During Serve Returns in Tennis: A Comparison Between Intermediate- and High-Skill Players

Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, Itay Basevitch, and Gershon Tenenbaum

, 2007 ). However, most of the research pertaining to gaze behavior and visual attention has been conducted under laboratory settings and focused on self-paced tasks (e.g., Vine, Moore, & Wilson, 2011 ). In addition, in the case of tennis, most gaze behavior studies targeted the server’s kinematics as

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Effects of Acute Physical Fatigue on Gaze Behavior in Expert Badminton Players

Mildred Loiseau Taupin, Alexis Ruffault, Jean Slawinski, and Dimitri Bayle

gaze behaviors to understand visual search strategies in sport. Indeed, these systems made it possible to study visual search strategies under ecological conditions in sport: a study design that has been expanding over the last 10 years ( Kredel et al., 2017 ). Compared with novices, experts tend to

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The Defender’s Vision—Gaze Behavior of One-on-One Defenders in Basketball

Johannes Meyer, Frowin Fasold, Karsten Schul, Matthias Sonnenschein, and Stefanie Klatt

team sports, athletes receive such information from their opponents’ body language, which allows them to thereby draw conclusions about the opponent’s intention ( Frith & Frith, 2006 ). Several studies have investigated the gaze behavior of athletes in basketball in laboratory settings (e

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Expertise Differences in Cortical Activation and Gaze Behavior during Rifle Shooting

Christopher M. Janelle, Charles H. Hillman, Ross J. Apparies, Nicholas P. Murray, Launi Meili, Elizabeth A. Fallon, and Bradley D. Hatfield

The purpose of this study was to examine whether variability in gaze behavior and cortical activation would differentiate expert (n = 12) and nonexpert (n = 13) small-bore rifle shooters. Spectral-activity and eye-movement data were collected concurrently during the course of a regulation indoor sequence of 40 shots from the standing position. Experts exhibited significantly superior shooting performance, as well as a significantly longer quiet eye period preceding shot execution than did nonexperts. Additionally, expertise interacted with hemispheric activation levels: Experts demonstrated a significant increase in left-hemisphere alpha and beta power, accompanied by a reduction in right-hemisphere alpha and beta power, during the preparatory period just prior to the shot. Nonexperts exhibited similar hemispheric asymmetry, but to a lesser extent than did experts. Findings suggest systematic expertise-related differences in ocular and cortical activity during the preparatory phase leading up to the trigger pull that reflects more optimal organization of the neural structures needed to achieve high-level performance.

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Peripheral Vision in Martial Arts Experts: The Cost-Dependent Anchoring of Gaze

Thomas Hausegger, Christian Vater, and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

come as a surprise that experts show a distinct gaze behavior in their sport that differs from that of less-experienced athletes ( Mann, Williams, Ward, & Janelle, 2007 ). For example, Williams and Davids ( 1998 ) found that skilled soccer players in a defensive situation shift their gaze more often

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The Effect of Large Visual Illusion and External Focus of Attention on Gaze Behavior and Learning of Dart Throw Skill

Somayeh Bahrami, Behrouz Abdoli, Alireza Farsi, Mahin Aghdaei, and Thomas Simpson

on gaze behavior separately, there is no research to-date examining the combined effects of these variables. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the combined effects of a large visual illusion and external focus of attention on the learning of a dart throwing task and QED in novices. Based

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The Influence of Anxiety on Visual Attention in Climbing

Arne Nieuwenhuys, J. Rob Pijpers, Raôul R.D. Oudejans, and Frank C. Bakker

The object of the current study was to investigate anxiety-induced changes in movement and gaze behavior in novices on a climbing wall. Identical traverses were situated at high and low levels on a climbing wall to manipulate anxiety. In line with earlier studies, climbing times and movement times increased under anxiety. These changes were accompanied by similar changes in total and average fixation duration and the number of fixations, which were primarily aimed at the holds used for climbing. In combination with these findings, a decrease in search rate provided evidence for a decrease in processing efficiency as anxiety increased.

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On the Interaction of Attentional Focus and Gaze: The Quiet Eye Inhibits Focus-Related Performance Decrements

André Klostermann, Ralf Kredel, and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

To date, despite a large body of evidence in favor of the advantage of an effect-related focus of attention compared with a movement-related focus of attention in motor control and learning, the role of vision in this context remains unclear. Therefore, in a golf-putting study, the relation between attentional focus and gaze behavior (in particular, quiet eye, or QE) was investigated. First, the advantage of an effect-related focus, as well as of a long QE duration, could be replicated. Furthermore, in the online-demanding task of golf putting, high performance was associated with later QE offsets. Most decisively, an interaction between attentional focus and gaze behavior was revealed in such a way that the efficiency of the QE selectively manifested under movement-related focus instructions. As these findings suggest neither additive effects nor a causal chain, an alternative hypothesis is introduced explaining positive QE effects by the inhibition of not-to-be parameterized movement variants.

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Anxiety on Quiet Eye and Performance of Youth Pistol Shooters

Eesha J. Shah, Jia Yi Chow, and Marcus J.C. Lee

relationship between expertise and a specific gaze behavior, the quiet eye (QE; Mann, Williams, Ward, & Janelle, 2007 ; Vickers, 2016 ). QE is defined as the final fixation directed to an object or location in the task space within 3° of visual angle for a minimum of 100 ms prior to the initiation of a

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Context Affects Quiet Eye Duration and Motor Performance Independent of Cognitive Effort

Oliver R. Runswick, Matthew Jewiss, Ben T. Sharpe, and Jamie S. North

in the field of perceptual-motor control have investigated how task constraints affect gaze behavior, anxiety, and cognitive effort to glean a broader understanding of the factors affecting performance. To this end, researchers have examined how QE is affected by factors such as physiological arousal