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Dana M. Lis and Keith Baar

these tissues may have an effect on performance. Dietary supplementation with gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen (HC) products has become popular among athletes aiming to improve connective tissue function and prevent or treat injury. However, the scientific validity of these nutritional interventions lags

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Rebekah D. Alcock, Gregory C. Shaw, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welvaert and Louise M. Burke

suggest that the intake of collagen from traditional dietary sources is low ( Williams et al., 2013 ). However, the use of collagen-derived gelatin in food technology as a texture modifier is widespread but unquantified. Indeed, even the most comprehensive food composition databases do not provide

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

may help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively without performance impediments. These supplements include creatine monohydrate, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and anti-inflammatory supplements such as curcumin or tart cherry

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Keith Baar

injured tendon has yet to be demonstrated. On top of the positive effects of loading on tendon health, we have recently shown that nutrition can positively affect collagen synthesis in musculoskeletal tissues ( Shaw et al., 2017 ). Briefly, we demonstrated that supplementing with 15 g of gelatin, 1 h

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Rory Warnock, Owen Jeffries, Stephen Patterson and Mark Waldron

calculation of power output (W/kg) for the subsequent 4 trials. Supplementation All of the supplements were prepared in a powder form, which were measured using an analytical balance (Precisa 125A; Precisa Gravimetrics AG, Zurich, Switzerland) and ingested in a gelatin capsule. The capsules contained 1 of the

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Matthew Ellis, Mark Noon, Tony Myers and Neil Clarke

gelatin capsule (Bulk powders, Colchester, UK) or a 2-mg·kg −1 placebo (maltodextrin; Bulk powders). Caffeine was consumed with water 1 hour prior to testing as previous research has shown that serum caffeine can peak within 1 hour and remain elevated for ∼3 hours. 16 The players were given 1-L fluid

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Christopher J. Beedie, Damian A. Coleman and Abigail J. Foad

The article describes a study examining placebo effects associated with the administration of a hypothetical ergogenic aid in sport. Forty-two team-sport athletes were randomly assigned to 2 groups. All subjects completed 3 × 30-m baseline sprint trials after which they were administered what was described to them as an ergogenic aid but was in fact 200 mg of cornstarch in a gelatin capsule. Group 1 was provided with positive information about the likely effects on performance of the substance, whereas Group 2 was provided with negative information about the same substance. The sprint protocol was repeated 20 min later. Although for Group 1 mean speed did not differ significantly between baseline and experimental trials, a significant linear trend of greater speed with successive experimental trials suggested that positive belief exerted a positive effect on performance (P < 0.01). Group 2 ran 1.57% slower than at baseline (P < 0.01, 95% confidence intervals 0.32–2.82%), suggesting that negative belief exerted a negative effect on performance. Collectively, data suggest that subjects’ belief in the efficacy or otherwise of a placebo treatment might significantly influence findings in experimental research.

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Anna Skarpañska-Stejnborn, Lucia Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Piotr Basta, Ewa Deskur-Smielecka and Magorzata Horoszkiewicz-Hassan

High-intensity physical exercise decreases intracellular antioxidant potential. An enhanced antioxidant defense system is desirable in people subjected to exhaustive exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementation with artichoke-leaf extract on parameters describing balance between oxidants and antioxidants in competitive rowers. This double-blinded study was carried out in 22 members of the Polish rowing team who were randomly assigned to a supplemented group (n = 12), receiving 1 gelatin capsule containing 400 mg of artichoke-leaf extract 3 times a day for 5 wk, or a placebo group (n = 10). At the beginning and end of the study participants performed a 2,000-m maximal test on a rowing ergometer. Before each exercise test, 1 min after the test completion, and after a 24-hr restitution period blood samples were taken from antecubital vein. The following redox parameters were assessed in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione levels, and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances concentrations. Creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and serum lipid profiles were assessed. During restitution, plasma TAC was significantly higher (p < .05) in the supplemented group than in the placebo group. Serum total cholesterol levels at the end of the study were significantly (p < .05) lower in the supplemented group than in the placebo group. In conclusion, consuming artichoke-leaf extract, a natural vegetable preparation of high antioxidant potential, resulted in higher plasma TAC than placebo but did not limit oxidative damage to erythrocytes in competitive rowers subjected to strenuous training.

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

aide in the recovery of tendon function after injury. However, consuming a diet where 5% of the calories come from glycine is not realistic in an athletic population. Gelatin/Hydrolyzed Collagen Another potential source of the amino acids found in collagen is gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen. Gelatin is

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Ronald J. Maughan

Medical and Scientific Commission of the International Olympic Committee. Within days, an online nutrition industry journal published an advertorial announcing that the International Olympic Committee endorsed the use of collagen as a dietary supplement. What the paper actually said was that “Gelatin and