We examined gender differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in 50 women and 28 men using questionnaire data and identified how LTPA status may be misclassified based on physical activity questionnaire content. LTPA was determined using the Four Week Physical Activity History modification of the Minnesota LTPA questionnaire. LTPA was classified as total, light- (≤ 4.0 METS), moderate- (4.5-5.5 METS), and heavy-intensity (≥ 6.0 METs), and household LTPA. The questionnaire was administered 14 times (every 26 days). Scores were computed as kcal·day−1 and min·day−1 with the 14 visits averaged to yield one year LTPA scores. Skewed data were log-transformed and are presented as the geometric mean. There were no gender differences in kcal·day−1 for total- (385 vs 421), moderate- (28.2 vs 23.3), and light-intensity LTPA (72.2 vs 52.6, p > .05). Heavy-intensity LTPA was greater in men than in women (98.1 vs 50.5, p = 0.01), while household LTPA was greater in women than in men (238.2 vs 134.7, p < .0001). Omission of heavy-intensity LTPA from the questionnaire reduced total LTI’A by 25% in men and 12% in women. In contrast, omission of household LTPA reduced total LTPA by 35% in men and 57% in women. Thus LTPA may be underestimated and activity status misclassified if questionnaires fail to include activities with high gender-specific participation rates.
Barbara E. Ainsworth, Mark Richardson, David R. Jacobs Jr. and Arthur S. Leon
Maria Grazia Monaci and Francesca Veronesi
in turn may trigger aggressive behaviors linked to feelings of anger more frequently than in other disciplines. With these premises, the aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences in anger experience, expression and control and the anger-performance relationship in tennis players
Andre Koka and Heino Sildala
study was designed to investigate gender differences in associations between different dimensions of perceived teachers’ controlling behavior and amotivation dimensions in PE. The Taxonomy of Amotivation According to Self-determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000 ), while an individual’s engagement
Thomas M. Caccese and Cathleen K. Mayerberg
A study was undertaken to assess the level of perceived burnout in college athletic coaches, and to determine whether male coaches differed from female coaches in level of burnout. Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a self-report rating scale that provides three subscores: Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment. Subjects were NCAA and AIAW Division I college head coaches (138 male and 93 female coaches). The sexes differed on both the emotional exhaustion and the personal accomplishment subscales, in terms of both frequency of response and intensity of response. Female coaches reported significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion and significantly lower levels of personal accomplishment than male coaches. The largest gender difference on the frequency dimension was for the item, “ I feel frustrated by my job.” For the intensity dimension, the largest difference was for the item “I feel burned out from my work.” Possible explanations for the gender differences are presented.
Michael R. Richardson, Tammie M. Johnson, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Earl S. Ford, William R. Boyer and James R. Churilla
Few studies have examined the gender differences between C-reactive protein (CRP) and muscle strengthening activity (MSA).
The sample (n = 7533) included U.S. adult (≥20 years of age).participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Created categories of MSA participation included no MSA (referent group), some MSA (≥1 to <2 days/week), and meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommendation (≥2 days/week). The dependent variable was elevated CRP (>3 to 10 mg/L).
Analysis revealed significantly lower odds of having elevated CRP for women reporting some MSA (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.44–0.93, P = .0191). Significantly lower odds of men having elevated CRP was observed in those reporting MSA volumes meeting the DHHS recommendation (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59–0.88, P = .0019). Following adjustment for waist circumference (WC) these odds remained significant in men but not women.
These results suggest that WC may mediate the associations between MSA and CRP and this relationship may be stronger in women.
Jerry R. Thomas, Jack K. Nelson and Gabie Church
Data for the analysis were the health related fitness scores, anthropometric measures, and physical activity information from the National Children and Youth Fitness Study. The subjects were 6,800 boys and 6,523 girls, ages 6 through 18. Multiple regression produced linear composites that were used as covariates to evaluate physical and environmental characteristics that relate to gender differences. The distance runs, chin-ups, and sit-ups displayed similar patterns in gender differences across age. Before puberty the important covariates are mainly physical, namely skinfolds. Following puberty the major factors that reduce gender differences are skinfolds and the amount of exercise done outside of school time.
This study aimed to examine gender differences in sources of competence information and the resultant perceptions of competence among male and female interscholastic coaches. Participants (102 female and 138 male coaches of girls’ sports) completed self-report measures that assessed preferences for sources of coaching competence information, perceptions of general and specific coaching competence, and potential reasons for withdrawal from coaching. Multivariate analyses revealed significant gender differences among sources of competence information, with women showing greater preference for athletes’ improvement and for improvement of their own coaching skills. Gender differences between coaching competence perceptions were also found. Males and females were similar in most self-perceptions, but women perceived themselves to be more competent at teaching sport skills. Contrary to theoretical predictions, canonical correlations between sources and perceptions of competence did not indicate a strong link between these two constructs for male or female coaches.
Lennart Raudsepp and Mati Pääsuke
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the gender differences in kinematics of running at maximal speed and overhand throwing, motor performances, and muscle strength in prepubertal children. Sixty 8-year-old children (33 boys and 27 girls) participated in this study. There were no sex differences with respect to the running kinematics, but in overhand throwing kinematics, motor performances, and muscle strength the boys surpassed the girls significantly (p < .05). However, in sit and reach and balance the girls surpassed the boys. Nonsignificant correlations (r = .20–.40) were found between the majority of variables. These results indicate gender differences in overhand throwing kinematics, motor performances, and muscle strength in prepubertal children.
Cathy D. Lirgg
The apparent lack of self-confidence in physical activity by females compared to males has been a recent concern of some researchers in sport psychology. Lenney (1977) suggested that females would be less confident than males when the task was male oriented or when the situation was competitive. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the magnitude of gender differences in self-confidence in physical activity according to Lenney's assertions. An overall nonhomogeneous effect size of 0.40 favoring males was found. Although masculine tasks produced a larger effect-size difference than neutral tasks, it was also not homogeneous. Only one study employed a feminine task, resulting in a large effect size favoring females. However, the results of a regression analysis, which found that sex-type of task contributed to gender differences in self-confidence, did support Lenney's contention. Whether or not the task took place in a competitive situation did not differentially affect the magnitude of the gender differences. Age of subject and type of confidence measure employed are also discussed as possible variables contributing to gender differences in self-confidence.
Beth Steel, P. Chelladurai and Barbara A. Brown
Gender differences in managerial aspirations and managerial potential have been advanced as possible explanations for the structuring of organizations along gender lines, with women concentrated in lower level jobs and under-represented in managerial positions. These hypothesized gender differences were examined in a sample of male and female physical education and non-physical education students. Analysis of variance results showed that the effects of gender, faculty, or their interaction on managerial aspirations were not significant. The main effects of aspiration level, faculty, and gender on the set of managerial potential variables were significant. Aspirants scored higher than nonaspirants on self-assurance, decisiveness, and need for dominance. Non-physical education students scored higher on need for dominance than did physical education students. Males were higher in need for autonomy and need for dominance, while females were higher in decisiveness.