organization leveraged the popularity of baseball to garner support for women’s enfranchisement. As demonstrated by the 1915 Suffrage Day at Philadelphia’s National League Park, White women publicly entered the masculine realm of baseball to advance female suffrage in the United States (US). US gender norms in
Lindsay Parks Pieper
Recent scholarship on women in combat sports has devoted substantial attention to the arena of martial arts and combat sports (MACS) as a space for women to challenge gender norms and construct new femininities (e.g., Channon, 2014 ; Channon & Phipps, 2017 ; Davies & Deckert, 2018 ; Maclean
Sarah Oxford and Fiona McLachlan
( Brady et al., 2007 ). These observations led Saavedra ( 2009 , p 127) to argue that female participation in gender-sensitive SDP organizations “has the power to upend what is seen/presented as ‘normal’ and [has] become a major force to social change beyond sport by challenging gender norms.” Top
T. Christopher Greenwell, Jason M. Simmons, Meg Hancock, Megan Shreffler and Dustin Thorn
, 2011 ; Kim, Walkosz, & Iverson, 2006 ), physical appearance ( Beaver, 2014 ), or in manners reinforcing traditional gender roles versus their athletic competence ( Cooky, Messner, & Musto, 2015 ). Women’s participation in combat sport, such as MMA, is contrary to traditional gender norms. Channon and
Lyndsay M.C. Hayhurst, Lisa McIntosh Sundstrom and Emma Arksey
sexuality that serve to “dehumanize” those identified as targets for these types of programs ( Hayhurst, 2014 ). To our knowledge, there have been no empirical studies that directly investigate how NGOs in the global South might succeed in challenging gender norms and addressing GBV through SDP programs
M. Ann Hall
. It was primarily individual sports that attracted these women because they could be easily promoted and staged with only a few participants. Through their performances these athletes contested and challenged the prevailing gender norms in late nineteenth-century America, and as a result they helped
Karen M. Appleby and Leslee A. Fisher
Rock climbing has been traditionally defined as a “masculine” sport (Young, 1997). The experiences of women in this sport have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of high-level female rock climbers. Qualitative analysis of interviews with eight high-level female climbers (ages 19 to 30 years) revealed three general themes: (a) compliance to hegemonic gender norms, (b) questioning hegemonic gender norms, and (c) resisting hegemonic gender norms. A discussion and analysis of these themes suggests that these female rock climbers engaged in a process of negotiated resistance as they attained a climbing identity, gained acceptance into the climbing subculture, and increased performance in the sport of rock climbing.
Emily A. Roper
The purpose of this article is to examine the roles that women play in the Diamond Dolls organization and the meaning and significance of those (gendered) roles in the university and athletic setting. Specifically, I am concerned with the ways in which institutions construct and maintain hegemonic femininity (Choi, 2000; Krane, 2001). Employing a feminist approach, I critically explored the use of sexist language in the naming of a student organization, the roles and responsibilities of the Diamond Dolls, and the meaning of these roles within the context of intercollegiate sport. Lastly, the role that gender norms play in women’s participation in such organizations is also addressed.
Shelly A. McGrath and Ruth A. Chananie-Hill
Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews with 10 college-level female bodybuilders, this paper focuses on several aspects of female bodybuilding that are underexplored in existing literature, including purposeful gender transgressions, gender attribution, racialized bodies, and the conflation of sex, gender, and sexual preference. We draw on critical feminist theory and the social constructionist perspective to enhance collective understanding of the subversive possibilities emerging from female bodybuilders’ lived experience. Collectively, female bodybuilders’ experiences affect somatic and behavioral gender norms in a wider Western-type industrialized society such as the United States.
To critically investigate mainstream media representations of female high school wrestling within the broader sociocultural and historical context of the 1990s and early 2000s, I employ a critical cultural studies perspective with an eye toward understanding intersecting power relations (Birrell & McDonald, 2000; McDonald & Birrell, 1999). Several reoccurring themes emerged highlighting the gendered tensions surrounding girls wrestling boys: female wrestling not being taken seriously; worries about girls’ safety; questions of how to understand female’s motivations to wrestle; and the effects of female wrestling on male participants and the sport itself The main underlying concern relates to wrestling being a male preserve, which works to define masculinity. Media attention demonstrates the cultural work that the sport of wrestling does in maintaining, and potentially resisting, gender norms and relationships. While girls’ wrestling might offer resistant or transformative potential, mainstream media, in this case, primarily works to support masculine hegemony in wrestling.