of competence and subjective value to inform gender stereotypes as well as a second aspect of the EVM; a child’s general schema as assessed by athletic identity. Perceptions of competence and subjective value in the sport domain are shaped in part by gender activity stereotypes (i.e., the shared
Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir
Nicolas Souchon, Andrew G. Livingstone and Gregory R. Maio
The influence of player gender on referees’ decision making was experimentally investigated. In Experiment 1, including 145 male handball referees, we investigated (a) the influence of referees’ level of expertise on their decisional biases against women and (b) the referees’ gender stereotypes. Results revealed that biases against women were powerful regardless of the referees’ level of expertise and that male referees’ stereotype toward female players tends to be negative. In Experiment 2, including 115 sport science students, we examined the influence of the participants’ gender, motivation to control bias, and time constraints on gender bias. Results indicated that participants’ gender had no impact on gender bias and that participants were able to reduce this bias in conditions in which they were motivated to control the bias.
Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin
and gendered stereotypes were evidenced by subtle and sometimes direct words used to describe the female athletic director. For example, when an athletic administrator questioned her capacity to understand baseball, he was suggesting (intentionally or not) doubts about her abilities to manage and lead
Jerraco L. Johnson, Peter A. Hastie, Mary E. Rudisill and Danielle Wadsworth
variable than gender alone based on the amount of variance explained by each variable. However, Taunton, Mulvey, and Brian ( 2018 ) identified gender stereotypes related to overhand throwing in preschool children, in that young girls identified overhand throwing as a skill that boys should engage in
Molly Hayes Sauder, Michael Mudrick and Jaime R. DeLuca
, Chase, and Smith ( 2014 ) noted that “simply being in a setting that is male-dominated and/or known to relate to gender stereotypes is enough to undermine women’s performance and motivation” (p. 144). In fact, Hardin and Longhurst ( 2016 ) found that, over the period of an introductory chemistry course
Beth G. Clarkson, Elwyn Cox and Richard C. Thelwell
policy) having long been removed. For example, Lewis et al. ( 2018 ) identified the cultural practices of men coach educators and candidates as disparaging towards women and reinforcing of gender stereotypes. Women coaches interviewed by Lewis et al. ( 2018 ) reported being met with hostility and treated
Ping Xiang, Ron McBride and April Bruene
Using achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as theoretical frameworks, this study examined relationships between parents’ beliefs and their children’s motivation in an elementary physical education running program. Participants included 102 parents and their children (49 boys; 53 girls) in the third and fourth grades. The parents completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, competence beliefs, task values, and gender stereotypic beliefs about running. Children’s persistence/effort was assessed by the number of laps run/walked over the year-long running program. Performance was measured by the timed mile run. Results indicated that only parents’ competence/value beliefs were predictive of their children’s persistence/effort and mile run performance. Gender stereotypic beliefs influenced achievement goals the parents adopted for their children. Findings provided empirical support for the importance of parental beliefs for children’s motivation in physical activity.
Mari Kristin Sisjord and Elsa Kristiansen
The present study explores Norwegian female and male elite wrestlers’ perceptions of media coverage of wrestling and of themselves as athletes. In-depth interviews were conducted with four female and four male elite wrestlers. Data analysis revealed that the wrestlers experienced media attention as limited and gender stereotyped, with a dominant focus on hegemonic masculinity. In addition, the wrestlers perceived that media coverage distorted their sport performance by focusing on sensational aspects and scandals rather than on actual performances and results. Some of the athletes’ descriptions of representations in the sports media and commercial television illustrated that, in their perception, they were viewed more as media clowns than as serious athletes.
Robert T. Clifton and Diane L. Gill
The present study answered Lirgg's (1991) call for confidence studies employing a feminine-typed task by assessing self-confidence and gender appropriateness in college cheerleading. Questionnaires assessing self-confidence and the gender appropriateness of cheerleading and its five subtasks (cheers and motions, partner stunts, jumps, tumbling, and cheerleading dance) were administered to college cheerleaders and to noncheerleader college undergraduates. It was hypothesized that females would possess more self-confidence in their ability at cheerleading and its various subtasks than would males, and that cheerleaders would rate their sport as less gender-stereotyped than would noncheerleaders. MANOVA results supported these hypotheses. On only two subtasks, partner stunts and tumbling, males possessed as much confidence as females did. Females reported more self-confidence on cheerleading and all other subtasks. Furthermore, cheerleaders of both sexes were aware of the stereotypes held by others, but viewed cheerleading and the tasks within it as more gender neutral than did noncheerleaders.
Katharine W. Jones
In this article I consider women’s relationship to football culture, showing how women sometimes downplay their gender identities to reinforce their fan identities. To accomplish this I interviewed 38 female fans at English men’s football (soccer) matches and analyzed their responses to abusive or insulting behavior by male fans. Women used three strategies to respond to sexism and homophobia. First, they expressed disgust at abuse, sometimes redefining fandom to exclude abusers. Second, they downplayed sexism. Their third strategy was to embrace gender stereotypes, arguing that femininity was inconsistent with “authentic” fandom and that abuse was a fundamental part of football. Finally, I suggest that examining nontraditional male fans using a similar framework might yield useful results.