The gendered ideology of dependence has long aided feminist scholars concerned with explaining the origins of gender inequality in the workplace, politics, and the private realm of household labor and caregiving ( Fraser & Gordon, 1994 ; Orloff, 1993 ; Pateman, 1988 ). A simplified synopsis
Madeleine Pape and Fiona McLachlan
Callie Batts Maddox
represented by one federation. The history of the WBSC is made more complicated by an underlying tension grounded in gendered assumptions about who plays baseball and who plays softball. While not often acknowledged, it is important to note that the sports returning to the Olympic program will be men
Laurel W. Sheffield and Lauren A. Stutts
a full-blown injury ( Dekker et al., 2003 ), should be better understood in order to help prevent related health problems in the future. Gender and Response to Pain The biopsychosocial model of pain suggests that biological, psychological, and social factors all interact and influence an individual
Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl
ideologies are particularly persistent in male-dominated fields and occupations, and when women are able to break into male-dominated fields, they are often marginalized and feel the effects of gendered stereotypes due in part to how the leadership construct is based on masculine traits and ideologies
Julia A. Valley and Kim C. Graber
This study examined physical education teachers’ awareness of gender equitable practices as well as the language and behaviors they employed in the physical education environment. The purpose of the study was to determine (a) what teachers know about gender equitable practices, (b) what types of gender bias are demonstrated, and (c) how teachers are influenced to adopt gender equitable behaviors in the physical education context.
A multiple-case study approach was used to provide an in-depth analysis of the attitudes and behaviors of four physical education teachers from four different schools. Teachers were formally and informally interviewed before, during, and after four extensive two-week periods of observations that included being audio recorded throughout the school day.
Themes emerged across the cases indicating that teachers engaged in teaching practices that reinforced gender stereotypes through biased language and gender segregation.
Teachers’ lack of awareness and understanding of gender equity prevented them from providing an inclusive learning experience for all students.
Michelle L. Bartlett, Mitch Abrams, Megan Byrd, Arial S. Treankler and Richard Houston-Norton
in previous work to successfully discern aggressive tendencies in other populations, no differences in anger were apparent between athletes of contact an non-contact sports nor between athletes and non-athletes. Gender and Anger Common clinical belief has suggested that women internalize anger and
Laura Azzarito and Melinda Solmon
Despite significant theoretical and practical progress over the past 20 years, the social construction of gender and its link to youths’ participation in physical activity in school contexts remain critical issues that call for further socioeducational scrutiny. In this study, researchers investigated the ways students’ embodiment of discursive constructs differed in terms of gender and race, and the relation between students’ embodied discursive constructs and students’ favorite or least favorite physical activities in physical education classes. The participants were 528 students from three public high schools. A survey was developed to assess students’ embodiment of discursive constructs. These results suggest that discursive constructs are influential in producing students’ choice of “gender-appropriate” physical activities. To destabilize the gender binary, therefore, the creation and promotion of a discourse of the “multiplicity of physicality” is proposed.
Mark H. Anshel and Toto Sutarso
The purpose of the present study was to conceptualize maladaptive forms of sport perfectionism by determining the factors (and items within each factor) that best describe this construct among skilled male and female athletes. The sample consisted of 217 undergraduate student athletes ranging in age from 19 to 33 years. A theory-driven four-factor, 18-item Likert-type scale, called the Sport Perfectionism Inventory (SPI), was generated for this study. The factors, each reflecting maladaptive perfectionism to an excessive degree, included the following: concern over mistakes (CM), self-criticism (SC), personal standards (PS), and negative feedback (NF). Results showed that the items were generalizable for both genders, and all correlations between factors in the scale were significant. It was concluded that these dimensions depicted maladaptive sport perfectionism as a function of gender.
Roger Cooper and Tang Tang
The 2012 Super Bowl was the most-watched television program in U.S. history and represented a wide-scale expansion to online and digital environments. This case study examined the role of gender in explanations for viewing the Super Bowl and for simultaneous media uses during the game. Results indicate that both men and women still relied on the traditional television for Super Bowl viewing. Newer media were used as a second-screen experience to complement the telecast or to gain additional information and social interaction. Gender differences underlie explanations for watching the Super Bowl on television and for simultaneous media uses. Findings suggest that women engaged with nonfootball elements that propel the Super Bowl from a sporting event to a societal event, whereas men indicated stronger interests in the game itself.
Katie Lebel and Karen Danylchuk
The innovations of social media have altered the traditional methods of fan–athlete interaction while redefining how celebrity athletes practice their roles as celebrities. This study explored gender differences in professional athletes’ self-presentation on Twitter. Content analyses were used to compare male and female athletes’ tweets relayed by all professional tennis players with a verified Twitter account. Profile details and messages were scoured for themes and patterns of use during the time surrounding the 2011 U.S. Open Tennis Championships. Goffman’s seminal 1959 theory of self-presentation guided the analysis. While athlete image construction was found to be largely similar between genders, male athletes were found to spend more time in the role of sport fan while female athletes spent more time in the role of brand manager.