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Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl

ideologies are particularly persistent in male-dominated fields and occupations, and when women are able to break into male-dominated fields, they are often marginalized and feel the effects of gendered stereotypes due in part to how the leadership construct is based on masculine traits and ideologies

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Julia A. Valley and Kim C. Graber


This study examined physical education teachers’ awareness of gender equitable practices as well as the language and behaviors they employed in the physical education environment. The purpose of the study was to determine (a) what teachers know about gender equitable practices, (b) what types of gender bias are demonstrated, and (c) how teachers are influenced to adopt gender equitable behaviors in the physical education context.


A multiple-case study approach was used to provide an in-depth analysis of the attitudes and behaviors of four physical education teachers from four different schools. Teachers were formally and informally interviewed before, during, and after four extensive two-week periods of observations that included being audio recorded throughout the school day.


Themes emerged across the cases indicating that teachers engaged in teaching practices that reinforced gender stereotypes through biased language and gender segregation.


Teachers’ lack of awareness and understanding of gender equity prevented them from providing an inclusive learning experience for all students.

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Michelle L. Bartlett, Mitch Abrams, Megan Byrd, Arial S. Treankler and Richard Houston-Norton

in previous work to successfully discern aggressive tendencies in other populations, no differences in anger were apparent between athletes of contact an non-contact sports nor between athletes and non-athletes. Gender and Anger Common clinical belief has suggested that women internalize anger and

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Mark H. Anshel and Toto Sutarso

The purpose of the present study was to conceptualize maladaptive forms of sport perfectionism by determining the factors (and items within each factor) that best describe this construct among skilled male and female athletes. The sample consisted of 217 undergraduate student athletes ranging in age from 19 to 33 years. A theory-driven four-factor, 18-item Likert-type scale, called the Sport Perfectionism Inventory (SPI), was generated for this study. The factors, each reflecting maladaptive perfectionism to an excessive degree, included the following: concern over mistakes (CM), self-criticism (SC), personal standards (PS), and negative feedback (NF). Results showed that the items were generalizable for both genders, and all correlations between factors in the scale were significant. It was concluded that these dimensions depicted maladaptive sport perfectionism as a function of gender.

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Laura Azzarito and Melinda Solmon

Despite significant theoretical and practical progress over the past 20 years, the social construction of gender and its link to youths’ participation in physical activity in school contexts remain critical issues that call for further socioeducational scrutiny. In this study, researchers investigated the ways students’ embodiment of discursive constructs differed in terms of gender and race, and the relation between students’ embodied discursive constructs and students’ favorite or least favorite physical activities in physical education classes. The participants were 528 students from three public high schools. A survey was developed to assess students’ embodiment of discursive constructs. These results suggest that discursive constructs are influential in producing students’ choice of “gender-appropriate” physical activities. To destabilize the gender binary, therefore, the creation and promotion of a discourse of the “multiplicity of physicality” is proposed.

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Roger Cooper and Tang Tang

The 2012 Super Bowl was the most-watched television program in U.S. history and represented a wide-scale expansion to online and digital environments. This case study examined the role of gender in explanations for viewing the Super Bowl and for simultaneous media uses during the game. Results indicate that both men and women still relied on the traditional television for Super Bowl viewing. Newer media were used as a second-screen experience to complement the telecast or to gain additional information and social interaction. Gender differences underlie explanations for watching the Super Bowl on television and for simultaneous media uses. Findings suggest that women engaged with nonfootball elements that propel the Super Bowl from a sporting event to a societal event, whereas men indicated stronger interests in the game itself.

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Katie Lebel and Karen Danylchuk

The innovations of social media have altered the traditional methods of fan–athlete interaction while redefining how celebrity athletes practice their roles as celebrities. This study explored gender differences in professional athletes’ self-presentation on Twitter. Content analyses were used to compare male and female athletes’ tweets relayed by all professional tennis players with a verified Twitter account. Profile details and messages were scoured for themes and patterns of use during the time surrounding the 2011 U.S. Open Tennis Championships. Goffman’s seminal 1959 theory of self-presentation guided the analysis. While athlete image construction was found to be largely similar between genders, male athletes were found to spend more time in the role of sport fan while female athletes spent more time in the role of brand manager.

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Leanne Norman

The purpose of this paper is to explore current research evidence to understand whether and how gender influences the coach-athlete relationship. Considering the importance of coach-athlete relationships, the field still remains under researched and the influences on this relationship require greater examination. Coach-athlete exchanges are shaped by assumptions and ideas about coaching and teaching relationships. Interactions are complex because sport makes a number of (at times competing) demands on participants. Varying individual characteristics increase this complexity. Yet within this multifaceted context, gender relations appear constant and problematic, particularly with respect to coaching. Evidence suggests that while male and female athletes share many similarities in what they want and prefer in terms of their coaching needs and expectations, there are specific nuances and differences that must be understood to facilitate an effective relationship. Furthermore, the evidence also suggests that male coaches, unwittingly, play a role in the perpetuation of the stereotype of women as the less able, less competitive and frailer athlete. These findings evidence the need to include a greater focus on gender-responsive coaching. The paper also highlights different coaching styles that may facilitate working with male and female athletes and emphasises the need for coaches to become relational experts to empower their athletes.

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Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner and Gianpaolo Patelli

The purpose of this study was to estimate the main and interaction effects of grouping forms, student gender and ability level on the pleasure experienced in physical education (PE). The participants included 178 secondary school students (M = 13.17, SD = .81), with 72 students enrolled in a basketball unit and 106 students enrolled in an endurance unit. Seventy-eight students participated in PE in alternating groups (alternating ability-based and mixed ability groups), and 100 students participated in mixed ability classes. Pleasure was assessed using a validated French language 10-item scale. The results indicated a significant main effect of grouping forms on the pleasure experienced in the basketball unit and a small but nonsignificant effect for endurance. The students in the alternating groups felt more pleasure than those in the mixed ability classes. Considering the importance of pleasure in PE, the alternating groups appear to represent a good solution.

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Hakan Gür and Selçuk Küçükoglu

Fifteen young and 17 older females (29.5 ± 4.6 and 58.2 ± 6.1 years of age) and 14 young and 15 older males (27.2 ± 3.3 and 56.5 ± 5.7 years) volunteered as subjects for this study to investigate age and gender effects on reciprocal moment ratios in knee muscle groups. Subjects completed 4 consecutive maximal contractions of dominant knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60°/s for the concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) torque tests and 20 consecutive maximal contractions at 180°/s and 1207s for the CON and ECC torque-work tests, respectively. Subjects also performed 5-s isometric (ISM) contractions at a 60° angle and 07s velocity for knee extensors. The results demonstrated that (a) ECC strength, particularly in males, was less influenced than ISM and CON strength by aging factors, (b) older groups, particularly females, possessed greater capacity for ECC muscle action than CON compared to other groups, and (c) older groups, particularly females, had a lower ratio of CON extensors:ECC flexors and a greater ratio of ECC extensors:CON flexors than young groups.