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Kirsten Krahnstoever Davison


A comprehensive measure of activity-related support was developed and used to examine gender differences in activity support and links between support and physical activity in a sample of adolescents.


Participants included 202 middle school girls and boys. Participants completed the Activity Support Scale and three self-report measures of physical activity.


Seven sources of support were identified including maternal and paternal logistic support, maternal and paternal modelling, general familial support, sibling support, and peer support; all scales were internally consistent. No gender differences in activity-related support were identified. Adolescents who were more active reported higher levels of activity support from all sources except maternal and paternal modelling of physical activity.


Results from this study highlight the importance of activity-related support from family and friends as a potential method to promote and sustain physical activity among adolescents.

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Alexander Jansson, Gunilla Brun Sundblad, Suzanne Lundvall, Daniel Bjärsholm, and Johan R. Norberg

, p. 60). More precisely, large gender differences in students’ perceptions of PE may indicate that one gender (e.g., girls) is disfavored by the PE practice and, thus, not collecting the aforementioned benefits (e.g., advantageous exercise habits) of positive perceptions of PE. Gender differences in

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Maria Grazia Monaci and Francesca Veronesi

in turn may trigger aggressive behaviors linked to feelings of anger more frequently than in other disciplines. With these premises, the aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences in anger experience, expression and control and the anger-performance relationship in tennis players

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Mark Richardson, David R. Jacobs Jr., and Arthur S. Leon

We examined gender differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in 50 women and 28 men using questionnaire data and identified how LTPA status may be misclassified based on physical activity questionnaire content. LTPA was determined using the Four Week Physical Activity History modification of the Minnesota LTPA questionnaire. LTPA was classified as total, light- (≤ 4.0 METS), moderate- (4.5-5.5 METS), and heavy-intensity (≥ 6.0 METs), and household LTPA. The questionnaire was administered 14 times (every 26 days). Scores were computed as kcal·day−1 and min·day−1 with the 14 visits averaged to yield one year LTPA scores. Skewed data were log-transformed and are presented as the geometric mean. There were no gender differences in kcal·day−1 for total- (385 vs 421), moderate- (28.2 vs 23.3), and light-intensity LTPA (72.2 vs 52.6, p > .05). Heavy-intensity LTPA was greater in men than in women (98.1 vs 50.5, p = 0.01), while household LTPA was greater in women than in men (238.2 vs 134.7, p < .0001). Omission of heavy-intensity LTPA from the questionnaire reduced total LTI’A by 25% in men and 12% in women. In contrast, omission of household LTPA reduced total LTPA by 35% in men and 57% in women. Thus LTPA may be underestimated and activity status misclassified if questionnaires fail to include activities with high gender-specific participation rates.

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Andre Koka and Heino Sildala

study was designed to investigate gender differences in associations between different dimensions of perceived teachers’ controlling behavior and amotivation dimensions in PE. The Taxonomy of Amotivation According to Self-determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000 ), while an individual’s engagement

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Masahiro Kuniki, Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Daiki Yamagiwa, and Nobuhiro Kito

, 3 core stability tests should be validated, and whether physical functions evaluated in each test can be generalized as a similar “core stability” should be clarified. Previous studies have reported a gender difference in core stability. 7 , 13 Reports of significantly lower scores on the Double

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Theodore C. Hannah, Oranicha Jumreornvong, Naoum F. Marayati, Zachary Spiera, Muhammad Ali, Adam Y. Li, John R. Durbin, Nick Dreher, Alex Gometz, Mark Lovell, and Tanvir Choudhri

Gender differences in neurocognitive function have been reported over the past few decades ( 2 , 19 , 20 , 23 , 27 , 28 ). For example, adult males have been found to perform better in visual–spatial memory, mental rotation, and quantitative problem solving, whereas adult females have been found to

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Thomas M. Caccese and Cathleen K. Mayerberg

A study was undertaken to assess the level of perceived burnout in college athletic coaches, and to determine whether male coaches differed from female coaches in level of burnout. Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a self-report rating scale that provides three subscores: Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment. Subjects were NCAA and AIAW Division I college head coaches (138 male and 93 female coaches). The sexes differed on both the emotional exhaustion and the personal accomplishment subscales, in terms of both frequency of response and intensity of response. Female coaches reported significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion and significantly lower levels of personal accomplishment than male coaches. The largest gender difference on the frequency dimension was for the item, “ I feel frustrated by my job.” For the intensity dimension, the largest difference was for the item “I feel burned out from my work.” Possible explanations for the gender differences are presented.

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Michael R. Richardson, Tammie M. Johnson, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Earl S. Ford, William R. Boyer, and James R. Churilla


Few studies have examined the gender differences between C-reactive protein (CRP) and muscle strengthening activity (MSA).


The sample (n = 7533) included U.S. adult (≥20 years of age).participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Created categories of MSA participation included no MSA (referent group), some MSA (≥1 to <2 days/week), and meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommendation (≥2 days/week). The dependent variable was elevated CRP (>3 to 10 mg/L).


Analysis revealed significantly lower odds of having elevated CRP for women reporting some MSA (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.44–0.93, P = .0191). Significantly lower odds of men having elevated CRP was observed in those reporting MSA volumes meeting the DHHS recommendation (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59–0.88, P = .0019). Following adjustment for waist circumference (WC) these odds remained significant in men but not women.


These results suggest that WC may mediate the associations between MSA and CRP and this relationship may be stronger in women.

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Jerry R. Thomas, Jack K. Nelson, and Gabie Church

Data for the analysis were the health related fitness scores, anthropometric measures, and physical activity information from the National Children and Youth Fitness Study. The subjects were 6,800 boys and 6,523 girls, ages 6 through 18. Multiple regression produced linear composites that were used as covariates to evaluate physical and environmental characteristics that relate to gender differences. The distance runs, chin-ups, and sit-ups displayed similar patterns in gender differences across age. Before puberty the important covariates are mainly physical, namely skinfolds. Following puberty the major factors that reduce gender differences are skinfolds and the amount of exercise done outside of school time.