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Jennifer T. Coletti, Veronica Allan, and Luc J. Martin

of a critical feminist lens revealed an underlying theme—the reinforcement of gender stereotypes—that permeated the storylines and served to undermine the potential adaptive messaging likely intended by the authors. Interestingly, the ways in which gender stereotypes were reinforced differed across

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Anna Posbergh and Shannon Jette

physical and emotional differences between men and women and the construction and reproduction of gender stereotypes ( McDonagh & Pappano, 2008 ). Given that “ideal” sporting traits are perceived as natural for male bodies, men are generally more enthusiastically welcomed than women into competitive

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Yonghwan Chang, Vicki Schull, and Lisa A. Kihl

, 2016 ); they also provide strong evidence to suggest that lower sport viewership among women may in part be attributed to insidious gendered practices and assumptions including gender stereotypes present in the world of sports. The gender stereotypes to which girls and women are subjected in the world

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Kelly Fraidenburg and Laura Backstrom

contesting sexist media coverage of sportswomen during the 2016 Olympics ( Villalon & Weiller-Abels, 2018 ). However, studies found that sports media aimed at women sports fans did not challenge gender stereotypes or the discourse of male dominance ( Antunovic & Hardin, 2012 ; Fink & Kensicki, 2002 ; Lisec

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Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler, and Irene Muir

of competence and subjective value to inform gender stereotypes as well as a second aspect of the EVM; a child’s general schema as assessed by athletic identity. Perceptions of competence and subjective value in the sport domain are shaped in part by gender activity stereotypes (i.e., the shared

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Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin

and gendered stereotypes were evidenced by subtle and sometimes direct words used to describe the female athletic director. For example, when an athletic administrator questioned her capacity to understand baseball, he was suggesting (intentionally or not) doubts about her abilities to manage and lead

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Adam Vanzella-Yang and Tobias Finger

-established and empirically supported frameworks—to suggest that coed team leagues typically offer an unleveled playing field that reinscribes gender stereotypes and inequalities in sport. Status construction theory and expectation states theory are conceptually similar and focus on the interpersonal processes

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Jerraco L. Johnson, Peter A. Hastie, Mary E. Rudisill, and Danielle Wadsworth

variable than gender alone based on the amount of variance explained by each variable. However, Taunton, Mulvey, and Brian ( 2018 ) identified gender stereotypes related to overhand throwing in preschool children, in that young girls identified overhand throwing as a skill that boys should engage in

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Molly Hayes Sauder, Michael Mudrick, and Jaime R. DeLuca

, Chase, and Smith ( 2014 ) noted that “simply being in a setting that is male-dominated and/or known to relate to gender stereotypes is enough to undermine women’s performance and motivation” (p. 144). In fact, Hardin and Longhurst ( 2016 ) found that, over the period of an introductory chemistry course

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Beth G. Clarkson, Elwyn Cox, and Richard C. Thelwell

policy) having long been removed. For example, Lewis et al. ( 2018 ) identified the cultural practices of men coach educators and candidates as disparaging towards women and reinforcing of gender stereotypes. Women coaches interviewed by Lewis et al. ( 2018 ) reported being met with hostility and treated