failure on the way individuals perceive expectations of future outcomes and even the way they perceive themselves following this failure has been called the process of generalization . ( Carver, 1998 ) Hence, athletes could generalize the outcome of one particular competition to future competition and
Generalization in Sports: The Impact of How Athletes Process Their Failures and Successes
Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes
Generalization From Physical Education to Recess During an Elementary Sport Education Season
Shu Cheng, Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, and Peter Iserbyt
). Generalization From Physical Education to Recess The theory of generalized behavior change ( Cooper et al., 2007 ) offers a framework to conceptually connect physical education with recess. Generality is a core characteristic of applied behavior analysis ( Baer et al., 1987 ) and states that a behavior has
Generalization Effects in Coping Skills Training
Ronald E. Smith
An important consideration in coping skills training is the extent to which acquired skills generalize to other life domains. For example, sport-oriented performance enhancement skills are often regarded as “life skills” that can also facilitate adaptation in other areas of life. Moreover, task-specific increases in self-efficacy produced by coping skills training could generalize to broader self-referent cognitive domains and affect global personality traits such as self-esteem and locus of control. The concept of generalization is analyzed, and factors and procedures that influence the strength and breadth of generalization effects are discussed. Several coping skills studies that address generalization effects of stress management and self-defense training are described, and the author suggests that generalization assessment should be a focal rather than incidental consideration when evaluating coping skills interventions.
Generalization of Participation in Fitness Activities From Physical Education to Lunch Recess by Gender and Skill Level
Peter Iserbyt, Hans van der Mars, Hannelore Drijvers, and Jan Seghers
.g., participating in fitness activities) occurs in a setting different (e.g., lunch recess) than the setting in which this behavior has been learned (i.e., PE lessons), then setting generalization is said to have occurred ( Stokes & Baer, 1977 ). Generalization across different settings, however, does not occur
Effects of an 8-Week Structured Physical Activity Program on Psychosocial Behaviors of Children With Intellectual Disabilities
Peggy Hiu Nam Choi and Siu Yin Cheung
The study aimed to investigate the impact of an 8-wk structured physical activity program on selected psychosocial behaviors of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to estimate whether generalization occurred. Thirty children (22 boys, 8 girls) with mild ID took part in the study. The ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between the training group and the control group in emotional self-control mean scores, F(1, 25) = 7.61, p = .011, with the posttest mean score of the training group being better than that of the control group. The correlation analysis showed a medium, positive correlation between the gain scores of emotional self-control in the training context and classroom context of the training group (r = .41, n = 16, p = .12). Hence, generalization appeared to have occurred.
Ripples in the Water: Physical Education Teacher Education Program Influence on Graduates’ Perceptions of Expanded Physical Activity Programming
Shannon C. Mulhearn, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Hans van der Mars, Jaimie McMullen, and Michalis Stylianou
in sport pedagogy has not focused on generalization effects of interventions, including whether CSPAP preparation within PETE programs generalizes to physical educators’ workplaces upon graduation. Generalization is said to have occurred if or when a set of behaviors practiced and learned in one
Transfer and Retention Effects of a Motor Program in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Jin Bo, Bo Shen, YanLi Pang, Mingting Zhang, Yuan Xiang, Liangshan Dong, Yu Song, Patricia Lasutschinkow, Alina Dillahunt, and Dan Li
learning studies have demonstrated that learning can be transferred to a new mode of movement (e.g., from tracking to pointing, Abeele & Bock, 2003 ). The transfer of learning (also known as generalization ) reflects our ability to adaptively and flexibly modify any learned motor skills for human
Generalization of Self-Efficacy to a Continuum of Stressors upon Mastery of a High-Risk Sport Skill
Evan B. Brody, Bradley D. Hatfield, and Thomas W. Spalding
This study examined the generalization of self-efficacy to additional stressors upon mastery of a high-risk task (i.e., rappeling). A secondary purpose was to determine if reductions in the psychophysiological anxiety response would occur to controlled laboratory challenges as a result of any psychological changes derived from the mastery experience. To investigate these issues, the researchers assigned college-age males (N=34) to treatment, consisting of participant-based modeling with self-directed mastery, or control. Self-efficacy was enhanced toward the rappel situation after treatment and the perceived increase was generalized to the area of high-risk activities. State anxiety was significantly reduced toward the treatment situation (i.e., rappel) at posttest, but no parallel change in stress reactivity or self-reported anxiety generalized to the laboratory stressors. This finding was expected, as no changes were noted in self-reported efficacy to accomplish the laboratory challenges. These results support the generalization of self-efficacy to relatively similar situations.
Teaching Sportsmanship in Physical Education and Recreation: An Analysis of Interventions and Generalization Effects
M. Patricia Giebink and Thomas L. McKenzie
This article reports two related studies designed to examine the effects of three intervention strategies (instructions and praise, modeling, and a point system) on children’s sportsmanship in physical education class and in a recreation setting. Four target boys (mean age 12.3 years) were monitored during 22 physical education class Softball games and during 21 recreational basketball games. In softball, an ABCDA reversal design indicated that while the effects on individual children varied, all three interventions increased sportsmanship and decreased unsportsmanlike behaviors. The improved sportsmanship behavior of the softball class did not transfer to basketball, however, and further interventions were implemented in that setting. Here, an ABAC reversal design revealed that instructions and praise intervention were effective in reducing unsportsmanlike behavior but it had little effect on increasing sportsmanship. In both settings, the point system with contingent back-up reinforcers was the most effective intervention.
Can Treadmill Slip-Perturbation Training Reduce Longer-Term Fall Risk Upon Overground Slip Exposure?
Anna Lee, Tanvi Bhatt, Xuan Liu, Yiru Wang, Shuaijie Wang, and Yi-Chung (Clive) Pai
generalized to overground slips. Emerging studies have provided evidence of immediate generalization such that, after receiving a single session of treadmill-perturbation training of both slip and trip (ie, sudden backward displacement of the BOS relative to the COM), 17 , 18 the likelihood of falls during