failure on the way individuals perceive expectations of future outcomes and even the way they perceive themselves following this failure has been called the process of generalization . ( Carver, 1998 ) Hence, athletes could generalize the outcome of one particular competition to future competition and
Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes
Ronald E. Smith
An important consideration in coping skills training is the extent to which acquired skills generalize to other life domains. For example, sport-oriented performance enhancement skills are often regarded as “life skills” that can also facilitate adaptation in other areas of life. Moreover, task-specific increases in self-efficacy produced by coping skills training could generalize to broader self-referent cognitive domains and affect global personality traits such as self-esteem and locus of control. The concept of generalization is analyzed, and factors and procedures that influence the strength and breadth of generalization effects are discussed. Several coping skills studies that address generalization effects of stress management and self-defense training are described, and the author suggests that generalization assessment should be a focal rather than incidental consideration when evaluating coping skills interventions.
Peggy Hiu Nam Choi and Siu Yin Cheung
The study aimed to investigate the impact of an 8-wk structured physical activity program on selected psychosocial behaviors of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to estimate whether generalization occurred. Thirty children (22 boys, 8 girls) with mild ID took part in the study. The ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between the training group and the control group in emotional self-control mean scores, F(1, 25) = 7.61, p = .011, with the posttest mean score of the training group being better than that of the control group. The correlation analysis showed a medium, positive correlation between the gain scores of emotional self-control in the training context and classroom context of the training group (r = .41, n = 16, p = .12). Hence, generalization appeared to have occurred.
Evan B. Brody, Bradley D. Hatfield and Thomas W. Spalding
This study examined the generalization of self-efficacy to additional stressors upon mastery of a high-risk task (i.e., rappeling). A secondary purpose was to determine if reductions in the psychophysiological anxiety response would occur to controlled laboratory challenges as a result of any psychological changes derived from the mastery experience. To investigate these issues, the researchers assigned college-age males (N=34) to treatment, consisting of participant-based modeling with self-directed mastery, or control. Self-efficacy was enhanced toward the rappel situation after treatment and the perceived increase was generalized to the area of high-risk activities. State anxiety was significantly reduced toward the treatment situation (i.e., rappel) at posttest, but no parallel change in stress reactivity or self-reported anxiety generalized to the laboratory stressors. This finding was expected, as no changes were noted in self-reported efficacy to accomplish the laboratory challenges. These results support the generalization of self-efficacy to relatively similar situations.
M. Patricia Giebink and Thomas L. McKenzie
This article reports two related studies designed to examine the effects of three intervention strategies (instructions and praise, modeling, and a point system) on children’s sportsmanship in physical education class and in a recreation setting. Four target boys (mean age 12.3 years) were monitored during 22 physical education class Softball games and during 21 recreational basketball games. In softball, an ABCDA reversal design indicated that while the effects on individual children varied, all three interventions increased sportsmanship and decreased unsportsmanlike behaviors. The improved sportsmanship behavior of the softball class did not transfer to basketball, however, and further interventions were implemented in that setting. Here, an ABAC reversal design revealed that instructions and praise intervention were effective in reducing unsportsmanlike behavior but it had little effect on increasing sportsmanship. In both settings, the point system with contingent back-up reinforcers was the most effective intervention.
Fabiana Rodrigues Osti, Caroline Ribeiro de Souza and Luis Augusto Teixeira
findings of generalization from malleable (training) to rigid (test) surfaces ( Hirase et al., 2015 ; Martínez-Amat et al., 2013 ), we hypothesized that SUP training for older adults leads to improved balance stability in transfer tasks performed on a regular stable ground surface. Based on the Martínez
Geert J.P. Savelsbergh and John Van der Kamp
The Smeets and Brenner view on grasping is simple: grasping is in fact pointing. In our comments we examine the model beyond the reach-to-grasp task namely, by grasping (without reaching) of moving objects and eating. The model fits the data of both tasks. Although generalization of a model to different tasks usually strengthens its acceptance, in the present case it reveals its shortcomings, namely, both tasks include a clear grasping component that is hard to accept as pointing.
Four types of motor behavior research that include special populations are described. These research areas are descriptive, program effectiveness, theory generalization, and theory construction. In addition, three levels of applied and basic research outlined by Christina (in press) are described and juxtaposed to the four types of motor behavior research. Current trends and potential areas of inquiry are highlighted in each. In particular, Christina’s Level 2 applied research is considered attractive for adapted physical activity researchers, as it is theory-driven with relevant tasks and fiinctional settings and may therefore contribute to a growing professional literature.
Anthony P. Kontos and Alfiee M. Breland-Noble
This article examines from a theoretical perspective the most pertinent issues related to providing sport psychology consulting to athletes of color. A review of multicultural concepts including identity, acculturation/enculturation, generalizations, and stereotyping is presented. These concepts provide a framework within which to address issues and examples pertinent to African American, Latino, Asian American, and American Indian athletes. A multicultural sport psychology approach incorporating worldview and integrative theory is examined. Finally, future issues in multicultural sport psychology including changes in the population, female athletes of color, and the need for sport psychologists of color are discussed.
Gary M. Farkas
An in vivo exposure and response prevention procedure consisting of seven treatment and generalization sessions was used to aid a 50-year-old woman with a lifelong fear and avoidance of swimming in the ocean. Subsequent to treatment, the subject, already a competent pool swimmer and an accomplished athlete, swam in the ocean, reduced her swim time by over 50%, and placed second in her age group while competing in a major triathlon. A 1-year follow-up indicated that she was still swimming in the ocean and participating in triathlons. The athlete/sport psychologist relationship is discussed in reference to the athlete’s compliance with treatment recommendations.