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Kevin Deschamps, Giovanni Matricali, Maarten Eerdekens, Sander Wuite, Alberto Leardini and Filip Staes

recent techniques and observations finally provide the basis for estimating in vivo the receptive and propulsive characteristics of a number of foot joints during running. The primary objective of the present study was to explore power absorption and generation behavior of different foot joints during

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Christopher D. Ramos, Melvin Ramey, Rand R. Wilcox and Jill L. McNitt-Gray

momentum by generating linear and angular impulse during interaction with the ground. During the takeoff phase, vertical and horizontal impulse generation requires control of the total body center of mass (CM) trajectory in relation to the reaction forces (RFs) generated during contact with the ground. 1

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Lesley Ferkins, James Skinner and Steve Swanson

sport management, organizations, and systems (or “sport leadership”). In what way have we (sport management scholars) kept pace with this new generation of leadership thinking? While we thought our field of sport management was perhaps too small to limit a special issue on sport leadership to

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Jacob K. Gardner, Songning Zhang, Max R. Paquette, Clare E. Milner and Elizabeth Brock

The recent popularity of unstable shoes has sparked much interest in the efficacy of the shoe design. Anecdotal evidence suggests that earlier designs appear bulky and less aesthetically appealing for everyday use. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a second generation unstable shoe on center of pressure (COP), ground reaction force (GRF), kinematics, and kinetics of the ankle joint during level walking at normal and fast speeds. In addition, findings were compared with results from the first generation shoe. Fourteen healthy males performed five successful level walking trials in four testing conditions: walking in unstable and control shoes at normal (1.3 m/s) and fast (1.8 m/s) speeds. The unstable shoe resulted in an increase in mediolateral COP displacement, first peak vertical GRF loading rate, braking GRF, ankle eversion range of motion (ROM), and inversion moment; as well as a decrease in anteroposterior COP displacement, second peak vertical GRF, ankle plantarflexion ROM, and dorsiflexion moment. Only minor differences were found between the shoe generations. Results of the generational comparisons suggest that the lower-profile second generation shoe may be as effective at achieving the desired unstable effects while promoting a smoother transition from heel contact through toe off compared with the first generation shoe.

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Denise M. Jones, Harvi F. Hart, Kay M. Crossley, Ilana N. Ackerman and Joanne L. Kemp

progressive market such that models may be superseded during longitudinal data collection and also compromise comparison of results between studies and individuals. For individuals and clinicians using these devices, comparability of data following an upgrade is of relevance. Fitbit™ claim that new generation

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Gregg Bennett, Robin K. Henson and James Zhang

The rise in consumer and corporate interest in action sports, also known as extreme sports, has been phenomenal. The apparent popularity of action sports, when combined with the sponsorships, endorsements, and advertising dollars they have quickly garnered, lends itself to scientific inquiry regarding the level and nature of public interest. The purpose of this study was to examine Generation Y's perceptions of action sports, with a specific focus on the expressed popularity of action sports and the relationship between action sports interest and use of the media. The 39-item Action Sports Questionnaire (ESQ) was constructed to examine Generation Y perceptions of action sports, sports related viewing preferences, and sports related media usage among middle and high school aged students. The present findings suggested that these members of the Generation Y (n = 367) niche market preferred action sports over the traditional sports of basketball and baseball. Respondents also indicated stronger preference for soccer, but would prefer to watch the X-Games over the World Cup. There is an indication that soccer and action sports are more popular among the younger generation than some traditional team sports. Males were slightly more supportive that action sports would become more popular in the future, and the male respondents were likewise more familiar with action sports. More members of Generation Y watch action sports than their predecessors, and they likewise tend to be optimistic about the future of action sports if they watch events on television.

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Julie Stevens, Anna Lathrop and Cheri Bradish

In response to the recent impact of Generation Y in the sport marketplace, this researach article examines the association between consumer behavior preferences and two segmentation variables, gender and physical activity level, for an adolescent segment (ages 14-17 years) of Canadian Generation Y youth. Questionnaire results from a sample of 1,127 respondents yielded data related to various consumer preferences for sporting goods purchases. These factors include purchase decision making, price, frequency, location, and product features. Results indicate an association among Generation Y, gender, and physical activity level with respect to a number of consumer preferences related to sport footwear, apparel, and equipment. Discussion and implications address how sport marketers might interpret the consumer profile results according to both age and cohort perspectives.

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Kinda A. Khalaf, Mohamad Parnianpour and Tasos Karakostas

The majority of existing normative torque generation capability (torque capability for short) databases are reported in the form of torque as a function of joint angle. although it is well recognized that torque capability is a function of both the joint angular position and angular velocity. The main objective of this study was to develop the methodology of 3-D dynamic representation of torque capability using the ankle joint as an example. The ankle torque capability of 20 males and females was assessed at 5 levels of ankle joint angular positions and velocities in each direction of plantar and dorsi flexion. The ANOVA results indicated significant main effects of joint angular position, angular velocity, direction, and gender, in addition to the interaction effect of angular position and velocity (p < .003) on the torque capability of the ankle joint. The regression analysis indicated that an individualized quadratic surface response performed significantly belter than the models developed for each gender or the whole population using the coefficient of determination and standard error of the regression as criteria. Such 3-D representation of torque capability has a broad spectrum of applications ranging from rehabilitation and ergonomic to biomechanical applications.

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Krisha Parker, Daniel Czech, Trey Burdette, Jonathan Stewart, David Biber, Lauren Easton, Caitlyn Pecinovsky, Sarah Carson and Tyler McDaniel

With over 50 million youth athletes participating in some kind of sports in the United States alone, it is important to realize the impact and benefits of playing (Weinberg and Gould, 2011). Physically, sports can help youth improve strength, endurance, weight control, and bone structure (Seefeldt, Ewing & Walk, 1992). Sport participation also benefits youths socially (Seefeldt, Ewing & Walk, 1992) and academically (Fraser-Thomas, Côté & Deakin, 2005). Optimal coaching education and training is a necessity if young athletes are to learn and improve in these aforementioned areas. In order for youth to grow from their sport experience, they need guidance from coaches, parents, and other important figures. Recent research by Jones, Jo and Martin (2007) suggests that more recent generations require a new approach to learning. The purpose of the current study was to qualitatively examine the preferred coaching styles of youth soccer players from Generation Z. After interviewing 10 youth athletes (five male, five female), four main themes emerged for Generation Z’s view of a “great coach.” These themes reflected the desire for a coach that: 1) does not yell and remains calm, 2) is caring and encouraging, 3) has knowledge of the sport, and 4) involves the team in decision making. Future research could include implementing a mixed-methodological approach incorporating the Leadership Scale for Sport (Chelladurai, 1984). Another avenue worthy of investigation is the role that technology plays for Generation Z athletes.

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Katie Lebel and Karen Danylchuk

The purpose of this study was to gain insight into Generation Y’s perceptions of women’s sport in the media. Twenty-four participants were recruited and organized into 4 gender-specific focus groups. Participants identified televised sport as a primary and preferred method of sport consumption. Women’s sports were linked with inaccessibility and perceived as inferior to men’s sport in terms of athletic skill and general atmosphere. An underrepresentation of women’s sport in the media was held responsible for the limited awareness surrounding women’s sport. Societal expectations instilled during early socialization processes and limited female opportunity in sport also emerged as critical barriers. Most participants regarded the inequality in women’s sport with indifference and were satisfied as sport enthusiasts with the opportunities for consumption available in men’s sport. This conservative approach to women’s sport suggests that Generation Y’s perceptions wield noteworthy influence on their sport consumption behaviors.