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Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism-Panel Population-Genetics Approach Based on the 1000 Genomes Database and Elite Soccer Players

Gustavo Monnerat, Alex S. Maior, Marcio Tannure, Lia K.F.C. Back, and Caleb G.M. Santos

Classical twin studies that presented heritability rates associated with performance in various sports disciplines support the value of genetics in determining the response. In addition, numerous trials involving physiological responses such as hypertrophy, energy expenditure, vasodilation, cardiac output

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No Association Between ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Elite Judo Athletic Status

Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Thomas Yvert, Alfonso de Diego, Catalina Santiago, Alfonso L. Díaz de Durana, Vicente Carratalá, Nuria Garatachea, and Alejandro Lucia

The authors compared ACTN3 R577X genotype and allele frequencies in the majority of all-time-best Spanish judo male athletes (n = 108) and 343 ethnically matched nonathletic men. No between-groups differences were found in allele (P = .077) or genotype distributions (P = .178). Thus, the R577X polymorphism was not significantly associated with the status of being an elite judo athlete, at least in the Spanish population. The contribution of genetics to sports-related phenotype traits is undeniable with some genotypes, of which ACTN3 R577X is currently the leading candidate, partly distinguishing individuals predisposed to either endurance or power sports. However, few athletic events can be categorized as purely power or endurance based. Although genetic testing (ie, for ACTN3 R577X) is already being marketed to predict sports talent and potential of young children, its usefulness is still questionable, at least in competitive judo.

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Physical Activity and Physical Fitness: Weighing the Relative Importance of Each

Sharon Ann Plowman

The last decade has seen a shift in emphasis from the goal of attaining physical fitness (a product) to the behavior of physical activity (a process) to achieve health benefits. A central question is whether the achievement of physical fitness (PF) is necessary or if participation in physical activity (PA) is sufficient. Three basic tenets of this shift are examined by using representative studies. They are: (1) both PA and PF will lead to health benefits; PF is simply a surrogate measure for PA, (2) the impact of genetics will be avoided if PA, not PF, is emphasized and that is desirable, and (3) it is easier to motivate “the masses” to accumulate lifestyle moderate activity than to undergo a vigorous exercise prescription. Results indicate that PA and PF might be independent risk factors, that both have a degree of genetic determination, and that participation rates for PA have changed little and remain insufficient. Both PA and PF need to be evaluated, promoted, and attained.

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The Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Academic Performance: A Twin Study

Sari Aaltonen, Teemu Palviainen, Richard J. Rose, Urho M. Kujala, Jaakko Kaprio, and Karri Silventoinen

. Genetics of regular exercise and sedentary behaviors . Twin Res Hum Genet . 2014 ; 17 ( 4 ): 262 – 271 . PubMed ID: 25034445 doi:10.1017/thg.2014.42 10.1017/thg.2014.42 14. Lightfoot JT , Geus E. J. C. DE , Booth FW , et al . Biological/genetic regulation of physical activity level: consensus

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The Effects of Different Forms of Caffeine Supplement on 5-km Running Performance

Peter J. Whalley, Chey G. Dearing, and Carl D. Paton

. Increases in cycling performance in response to caffeine ingestion are repeatable . Nutr Res . 2012 ; 32 : 78 – 84 . PubMed ID: 22348455 doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2011.12.001 22348455 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.12.001 23. Southward K , Rutherford-Markwick K , Badenhorst C , Ali A . The role of genetics

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Gene-by-Activity Interactions on Obesity Traits of 6-Year-Old New Zealand European Children: A Children of SCOPE Study

Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N. Shelling, Clare R. Wall, Edwin A. Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M.E. McCowan, and John M.D. Thompson

.healthplace.2016.09.003 27771443 15. Grimm ER , Steinle NI . Genetics of eating behavior: established and emerging concepts . Nutr Rev . 2011 ; 69 ( 1 ): 52 – 60 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00361.x 21198635 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00361.x 16. Hill JO , Wyatt HR , Peters JC . Energy

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Exercise Physiology From 1980 to 2020: Application of the Natural Sciences

Jane A. Kent and Kate L. Hayes

classical molecular biology, genetics, biophysics, biochemistry, and physiology have all contributed to the current understanding of skeletal muscle contraction at the molecular level. At the cellular level, advances in biotechnology have allowed for the novel identification and visualization of cells and

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Genetics of Strength and Power Characteristics in Children and Adolescents

Gaston Beunen, Martine Thomis, Maarten Peeters, Hermine H. Maes, Albrecht L. Claessens, and Robert Vlietinck

The aim of this study is to quantify the genetic and environmental variation in isometric and explosive strength (power) in children and adolescents, using structural equation models. Arm pull (static strength) and vertical jump (explosive strength, power) were measured in 105 twin pairs from the Leuven Longitudinal Twin Study. Boys and girls were tested at annual intervals between 10 and 16 years and at 18 years. Path models were fitted to the observed strength characteristics and a gender heterogeneity analysis was performed at each age level. A model including additive genetic and specific environmental factors (AE-model) allowing for a difference in total phenotypic variance or in genetic/environmental variance components in boys and girls best explains both strength characteristics at most age levels. The additive genetic contribution for isometric strength varies between a2 = .44 and a2 = .83, and for explosive strength between a2 = .47 and a2 = .92, except at 16 years in males. In conclusion there is good evidence that during the growth period both static and explosive strength are under moderate to moderately strong genetic influence.

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Genetics and Pediatric Exercise Science: A Brief Commentary and Review

Joey C. Eisenmann and Keith Tolfrey

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IGF-I and IGF-I Receptor Polymorphisms Among Elite Swimmers

Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Nitzan Dror, Dan Nemet, and Alon Eliakim

In recent years several genetic polymorphisms related to the GH-IGF-I axis were suggested to promote athletic excellence in endurance and power sports. We studied the presence of the C-1245T SNP (rs35767), a nucleotide substitution in the promoter region of the IGF-I gene, and the presence of the 275124A > C SNP (rs1464430), a common nucleotide substitution in the intron region of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) gene in elite long and short-distance swimmers compared with nonphysically active controls. The rare T/T IGF-I polymorphism was found only in 5.3% of the long-distance swimmers, and was not found at all in the short-distance swimmers or among the control group participants. The prevalence of the IGF-I receptor AA genotype was significantly lower in the swimming group as a whole (35%) compared with the control group (46%), in particularly due to reduced frequency of the AA genotype among short-distance swimmers (26%). In contrast to previous reports in elite endurance and power track and field athletes, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IGF-I and the IGF-IR were not frequent among elite Israeli short- and long-distance swimmers emphasizing the importance of other factors for excellence in swimming. The results also suggest that despite seemingly similar metabolic characteristics different sports disciplines may have different genetic polymorphisms. Thus, combining different disciplines for sports genetic research purposes should be done with extreme caution.