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Guy C. Wilson, Yorgi Mavros, Lotti Tajouri and Maria Fiatarone Singh

) (martial arts) (calisthenics) (flexibility) (stretching) (AND) 2. Moderating factor (OR) (snp) (gwas) (genetic variation) (polymorphism) (genotype) (herit*) (herit* variation) (inherited) (individual genetics) (heterozygous) (homozygous) (genetic deviation) (genetics) (deviation) (genetic factors) (AND) 3

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Naoki Kikuchi, Dai Ueda, Seok-ki Min, Koichi Nakazato and Shoji Igawa

Purpose:

To examine the relationship between ACTN3 polymorphisms and level of athletic performance in Japanese wrestlers.

Methods:

The control group consisted of 243 healthy Japanese individuals. The authors divided 135 wrestlers into 3 groups based on their results in national or international competitions. They classified as elite 24 wrestlers who had placed in the top 8 in a world championship or participated in Olympic games, 28 wrestlers who had participated in world championships or become champions in Japan’s national championships were classified as subelite, and 83 wrestlers were classified as national (N-W, ie, national-level wrestler). In addition, the authors combined the elite and subelite to form the classification international-level wrestlers (I-W).

Results:

The frequency of the null X allele and the XX genotype were significantly lower in the I-W group than in the control group. However, there was no significant difference in ACTN3 genotype or allele frequency between the N-W and control groups. The frequency of the ACTN3 XX genotype in the elite groups was lower than that of all groups, and a linear tendency was observed between ACTN3 XX genotype and athletic status.

Conclusions:

In conclusion, the data indicated that ACTN3 polymorphisms were related to athletic performance in Japanese wrestlers.

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Mark A. Sarzynski, Joey C. Eisenmann, Gregory J. Welk, Jared Tucker, Kim Glenn, Max Rothschild and Kate Heelan

The present study examined the association between the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, physical activity, and resting blood pressure (BP) in a sample of 132 children (48.4% female). Children attaining 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) possessed lower % body fat (29% vs 24%, p < .05). Resting BP did not significantly differ between genotypes. Furthermore, partial correlations between MVPA and BP were low and did not vary by ACE genotype. Thus, the ACE I/D genotype is not associated with BP and does not modify the relationship between physical activity and BP in this sample of children.

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Paulo Gentil, Tulio Cesar de Lima Lins, Ricardo Moreno Lima, Breno Silva de Abreu, Dario Grattapaglia, Martim Bottaro, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira and Rinaldo Wellerson Pereira

The current study investigated the association between vitamin-D-receptor (VDR) genotypes with bone-mineral density (BMD) and its interaction with physical activity level (PAL). Individuals in a sample of 192 volunteers (67.84 ± 5.23 years) underwent BMD evaluation and were genotyped for VDR ApaI, BsmI, FokI, and TaqI polymorphisms. Haplotypes were reconstructed through expectation-maximization algorithm, and regression-based haplotype-specific association tests were performed with studied phenotypes. None of the polymorphisms were associated with BMD at any site; however, haplotype was associated with femoral-neck and Ward’s-triangle BMD. Interaction between PAL and VDR genotypes was significant for the FokI polymorphism at femoral-neck and Ward’s-triangle BMD. The FokI T/T genotype was associated with higher BMD in active women. It was concluded that VDR haplotypes, but not genotypes, are associated with femoral-neck and Ward’s-triangle BMD in post-menopausal women. Moreover, the results suggest that VDR FokI polymorphism might be a potential determinant of BMD response to physical activity.

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Nuria Garatachea, Zoraida Verde, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Thomas Yvert, Gabriel Rodriguez-Romo, Francisco J. Sarasa, Sonsoles Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina Santiago and Alejandro Lucia

Purpose:

To determine the association of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism with leg-muscle explosive power in Spanish (white) elite basketball players and controls.

Participants:

100 (60 men) elite basketball players (cases) and 283 nonathletic controls.

Methods:

The authors assessed power performance by means of the vertical-squat and countermovement-jump tests.

Results:

Genotype distributions did not differ between groups (cases: 37.0% [RR], 42.0% [RX], and 21.0% [XX]; controls: 31.8% [RR], 49.8% [RX], and 18.4% [XX]; P = .353). The authors did not observe any effect of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on study phenotypes in either group, including when they performed the analyses separately in men and women. They found no association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and the likelihood of being an elite basketball player using the dominant or the recessive model, and the results remained unaltered when the analyses were adjusted for sex, weight, height, and age or when performed for men and women separately.

Conclusions:

Although the ACTN3 R577X is associated with explosive muscle performance and this phenotype is important in the sport of basketball (ie, during jumps), the authors found no association with leg explosive power in elite basket players or with the status of being this type of athlete.

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Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N. Shelling, Clare R. Wall, Edwin A. Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M.E. McCowan and John M.D. Thompson

<6 METs), and vigorous activity (>6 METs) during waking hours. Analysis of actigraphy data required a complete collection of data throughout the night for 3 or more days. Sample Preparation, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Selection, and Genotyping Genomic DNA was isolated from saliva and buffy coats

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Gustavo Monnerat, Alex S. Maior, Marcio Tannure, Lia K.F.C. Back and Caleb G.M. Santos

dynamometer itself. Genotyping and Genotype Mining Genotypes were performed covering 10 genetic polymorphisms previously related to physical performance/sports success in the literature. To obtain DNA, buccal cells were collected using sterile swabs; genomic DNA was extracted by precipitation and column

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Thiago Correa Porto Gonçalves, Atila Alexandre Trapé, Jhennyfer Aline Lima Rodrigues, Simone Sakagute Tavares and Carlos Roberto Bueno Junior

of multicomponent training resulted in an increase in NO and antioxidant capacity and a decrease in blood pressure (BP) in women aged between 50 and 80 years; however, these results seem to be associated with the nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) genotypes and haplotypes ( Trapé et al., 2017

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Wai Pong Wong, Yi Zhao and Woon-Puay Koh

The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism has been studied for its role in determining habitual physical activity level, but there is no information from Asian populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether this ACE gene polymorphism was associated with physical activity level among Chinese in Singapore. In this cross-sectional study, 110 normotensive Chinese in Singapore, age 21–61 yr, completed the short-form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and contributed buccal cell samples for genotyping of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism using polymerase chain-reaction amplification. They also provided demographic information and underwent anthropometric measurements. Physical activity level was expressed as continuous (in kcal/wk) and categorical (low, moderate, or high) data. The 3 genotypes of ACE were DD (homozygous for the deletion allele), II (homozygous for the insertion allele), and ID. Among the participants, 28.2% reported low, 49.1% moderate, and 22.7% high physical activity level. Frequencies of the genotypes were 11.8% for DD, 42.7% for ID, and 45.5% for II. ACE genotype was independently associated with physical activity level. After age, gender, and body-mass index were adjusted for, individuals with DD or ID genotypes were more likely to report insufficient or low physical activity level than those with II genotypes (odds ratio = 6.88; 95% confidence interval: 2.26, 20.94). In conclusion, the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene is significantly associated with self-reported physical activity level in normotensive Chinese Singaporeans.

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Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Thomas Yvert, Alfonso de Diego, Catalina Santiago, Alfonso L. Díaz de Durana, Vicente Carratalá, Nuria Garatachea and Alejandro Lucia

The authors compared ACTN3 R577X genotype and allele frequencies in the majority of all-time-best Spanish judo male athletes (n = 108) and 343 ethnically matched nonathletic men. No between-groups differences were found in allele (P = .077) or genotype distributions (P = .178). Thus, the R577X polymorphism was not significantly associated with the status of being an elite judo athlete, at least in the Spanish population. The contribution of genetics to sports-related phenotype traits is undeniable with some genotypes, of which ACTN3 R577X is currently the leading candidate, partly distinguishing individuals predisposed to either endurance or power sports. However, few athletic events can be categorized as purely power or endurance based. Although genetic testing (ie, for ACTN3 R577X) is already being marketed to predict sports talent and potential of young children, its usefulness is still questionable, at least in competitive judo.