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Andrew E. Springer, Deanna M. Hoelscher and Steven H. Kelder

Background:

Geographic differences in the prevalence of physical activity (PA) have been found among adults in the US; similar studies have not been conducted among adolescents.

Methods:

Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the CDC’s 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we estimated the prevalence of PA and sedentary behaviors by metropolitan status and geographic region.

Results:

The prevalence of PA was lowest and prevalence of sedentary behavior highest for urban students. Students from the South reported the lowest prevalence of PA and the highest prevalence of TV watching, while students from the West generally reported the highest PA prevalence and lowest sedentary behavior prevalence. Prevalence differences ranged from < 1.0% to > 15%, with most differences falling between 5% and 10%.

Conclusions:

Findings mirror regional variations previously observed in adult PA. We need to understand factors that contribute to lower PA in youth living in the South and in urban settings.

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Joshua Woods

Communities of participants in new and nonnormative sports are often small, geographically dispersed, and therefore hard to study. Given the low incidence rate of regular participants, a typical, large-scale survey would return such a small number of players that statistically accurate demographic

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Karen C. Smith, Griffin L. Michl, Jeffrey N. Katz and Elena Losina

, and fewer daylight hours have all been associated with lower levels of activity in adults. 16 – 19 Wind speed has been associated with both increases in walking 18 and decreases in physical activity. 19 Geographic factors are also associated with physical activity levels, with shorter distances

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Mohammad Sahebkar, Hamid Heidarian Miri, Pardis Noormohammadpour, Amir Tiyuri, Reza Pakzad, Nasrin Mansournia, Zahra Heidari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Emmanuel Stamatakis

studies. Low PA has been identified as the fourth cause of global death (6% of deaths globally). Furthermore, low PA has been shown to contribute to 21%–25% of breast and colon cancers, 27% of type 2 diabetes, and roughly 30% of ischemic heart disease burden. 8 Understanding the geographical distribution

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Nicholas Wise and John Harris

Carlos Tevez is an Argentinean football player who plays for Manchester City in the English Premier League. Having previously played for City’s fierce local rivals, Manchester United, he has forged an interesting identity in the city. This study analyzes the various meanings allotted to him, with emphasis on his presence surrounding the construction of alternative (re)presentations of Argentina in the local (Manchester) and national (England) media. A host of newspaper articles surrounding his transfer to Manchester City and the first derby match of the season was used as the base for this study. The conceptual approach incorporates imaginative geographies of sport, relating to how individuals create contested identities of place.

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Christoph Buck, Anca Bolbos and Sven Schneider

associations was quantified using a geographically weighted regression (GWR). Methods Setting and Investigation Area The “PlaSMa” (Playground Study Mannheim) study was carried out in Mannheim, Germany. The city lies in the western part of Germany, has a population of 311,470 inhabitants and covers an area of

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Chelsea Steel, Carolina Bejarano and Jordan A. Carlson

investigation of how physical activity is accumulated across various geographic locations ( Carlson et al., 2016 ; James et al., 2016 ; Klinker, Schipperijn, Toftager, Kerr, & Troelsen, 2015 ), as well as time spent in active versus passive trip modes ( Carlson et al., 2015 ). GPS and accelerometer data are

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Marc A. Adams, Sherry Ryan, Jacqueline Kerr, James F. Sallis, Kevin Patrick, Lawrence D. Frank and Gregory J. Norman

Background:

Concurrent validity of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) items was evaluated with objective measures of the built environment using geographic information systems (GIS).

Methods:

A sample of 878 parents of children 10 to 16 years old (mean age 43.5 years, SD = 6.8, 34.8% non-White, 63.8% overweight) completed NEWS and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. GIS was used to develop 1-mile street network buffers around participants’ residences. GIS measures of the built environment within participants’ buffers included percent of commercial and institutional land uses; number of schools and colleges, recreational facilities, parks, transit stops, and trees; land topography; and traffic congestion.

Results:

Except for trees and traffic, concordance between the NEWS and GIS measures were significant, with weak to moderate effect sizes (r = −0.09 to −0.36, all P ≤ 01). After participants were stratified by physical activity level, stronger concordance was observed among active participants for some measures. A sensitivity analysis of self-reported distance to 15 neighborhood destinations found a 20-minute (compared with 10- or 30-minute) walking threshold generally had the strongest correlations with GIS measures.

Conclusions:

These findings provide evidence of the concurrent validity of self-reported built environment items with objective measures. Physically active adults may be more knowledgeable about their neighborhood characteristics.

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William Hansen, Ned Kalapasev, Amy Gillespie, Mary Singler and Marsha Ball

Background:

Rising obesity rates in the United States has spurred efforts by health advocates to encourage more active lifestyles including walking. Ensuring the availability, quality, and safety of pedestrian walkways has become an important issue for government at all levels.

Methods:

Pedestrian paths in Campbell County Kentucky were evaluated using a ranking criteria developed by the Walking and Bicycling Suitability Assessment (WABSA) project at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health. A pedestrian path Geographic Information System (GIS) data-layer was created, and mobile GIS units were used to assess the sidewalk segments using the ranking. Data from sidewalk surveys were compared with Census 2000 block group information on age of housing, population density, and household transportation characteristics to examine the correlation between these factors and sidewalk presence and quality. The analysis explored the use of census data to predict walkability factors and looked for trends in quality and availability of pedestrian paths over time.

Results:

Results showed higher overall scores for older urban areas adjacent to the Ohio River and Cincinnati. Housing built in the 1970s and 1980s showed the lowest scores, while more recent housing showed improvement over earlier decades. Age of housing was determined to be a useful predictor, while economic and population density attributes showed no correlation with walkability factors.

Conclusion:

Census housing age data are the most useful predictor of walkability demonstrating clear trends over time. The study shows improvements in walkways availability over the past few decades; however, infrastructure improvements are needed to provide more extensive pedestrian walkways and linkages between existing walkways in Campbell County.

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Alain P. Gauthier, Michel Lariviere, Raymond Pong, Susan Snelling and Nancy Young

Background:

Researchers have recently expressed their concern for the health of Francophones and rural dwellers in Canada. Their levels of physical activity may explain part of the observed differences. However, little is known about the physical activity levels of these 2 groups. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of physical activity among a sample of Francophones and rural dwellers. The study also assessed the associations of various types of physical activity to measures of health status.

Methods:

A quota-based convenience sample of 256 adults from Northern Ontario was surveyed using the IPAQ and the SF-12.

Results:

There were no significant differences in activity levels between language groups (P = .06) or geographical groups (P = .22) on the combined dependent variables based on MANOVA. Leisure-time physical activity scores were consistently associated to better physical component summary scores of the SF-12.

Conclusions:

Implications for practice include that leisure-time physical activities have been at the forefront of public health promotion, and our findings support this approach. Further, population specific interventions are indeed important, however, within this Canadian context when identifying target groups one must look beyond sociocultural status or geographical location.