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Eboneé N. Butler, Anita M.H. Ambs, Jill Reedy and Heather R. Bowles


Examining relationships between features of the built environment and physical activity is achievable with geographic information systems technology (GIS). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to identify GIS measures that can be considered for inclusion in national public health surveillance efforts. In the absence of a universally agreed upon framework that integrates physical, social, and cultural aspects of the environment, we used a multidimensional model of access to synthesize the literature.


We identified 29 studies published between 2005 and 2009 with physical activity outcomes that included 1 or more built environment variables measured using GIS. We sorted built environment measures into 5 dimensions of access: accessibility, availability, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability.


Geospatial land-use data, street network data, environmental audits, and commercial databases can be used to measure the availability, accessibility, and accommodation dimensions of access. Affordability and acceptability measures rely on census and self-report data.


GIS measures have been included in studies investigating the built environment and physical activity, although few have examined more than 1 construct of access. Systematic identification and collection of relevant GIS measures can facilitate collaboration and accelerate the advancement of research on the built environment and physical activity.

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Grace Yan, Ann Pegoraro and Nicholas M. Watanabe

and a low density, indicating that a number of athletes functioned as important bridges in promoting the online protest. Meanwhile, a few limitations of the research design must be recognized. First, in the geospatial and cluster analysis, the data analysis did not distinguish varied attitudes toward

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Rachel Cole, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Alison Carver, Neville Owen and Takemi Sugiyama

.), Geospatial analysis and modelling of urban structure and dynamics (pp.  31 – 52 ). Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Springer . 10.1007/978-90-481-8572-6_3 Lichtenberg , P.A. , MacNeill , S.E. , & Mast , B.T. ( 2000 ). Environmental press and adaptation to disability in hospitalized live-alone older

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Kevin Lanza, Brian Stone Jr, Paul M. Chakalian, Carina J. Gronlund, David M. Hondula, Larissa Larsen, Evan Mallen and Regine Haardörfer

growing season—the period of peak vegetative health that matches the conditions of study days—in 2015, 2014, and 2013 for Atlanta, Detroit, and Phoenix, respectively. In ERDAS IMAGINE 2016 (Hexagon Geospatial, Madison, AL), unsupervised classification was performed using k-means clustering to categorize

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Benjamin M. Jackson, Ted Polglaze, Brian Dawson, Trish King and Peter Peeling

might be the global navigation satellite system (GNSS), a collective term used to encompass all satellite navigation systems providing geospatial positioning with global coverage. Currently, this includes both the United States–based GPS (n = 24) and the Russian-based GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation

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Rajni Rai, Michelle I. Jongenelis, Ben Jackson, Robert U. Newton and Simone Pettigrew

Environment and Health, Perth, WA, Australia), which is a web-based geospatial tool allowing users to access data on the provision and distribution of POS across specific regions of Western Australia ( Centre for the Built Environment and Health, 2013 ). Seasons In Western Australia, the average temperature

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Kirsi E. Keskinen, Merja Rantakokko, Kimmo Suomi, Taina Rantanen and Erja Portegijs

retrieved from openly available geospatial data sets and studied in relation to participant data. The participant data, including PA and perceived environmental features of the neighborhood, collected from community-dwelling older adults, were drawn from the data gathered for the “Life-Space Mobility in Old

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Kelsey L. Boulé and Courtney W. Mason

), 63–103. 29. Colin S. Shanley, Gary P. Kofinas, and Sanjay Pyare. 2013. “Balancing the conservation of wildlife habitat with subsistence hunting access: A geospatial-scenario planning framework.” Landscape and Urban Planning 115: 10–17.; Scott Creel et al. 2016. “Assessing the sustainability of

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Lin Yu, Hanhan Xue and Joshua I. Newman

culture, the geospatial birth of post-socialist Chinese free market reform, and the complex encounters of Western and Eastern political economies. In taking stock of this, we would concur with Xin Gu ( 2015 ) who noted: Shanghai has used culture to propel itself to global city status. However, the

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Liam Kennedy, Derek Silva, Madelaine Coelho and William Cipolli III

. They are so full of love and kindness it is almost ridiculous. . .everyone here looks after someone who looks after someone else ( Blatchford, 2018 , p. A7). The Canadian imaginary, particularly in Prairie provinces such as Saskatchewan, is thus intimately linked with the geospatial landscape. Others