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Yonglin Liang, Francisco T.T. Lai, Joyce L.Y. Kwan, Wai Chan, and Eng-Kiong Yeoh

Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CRE-2003.102). Written informed consent from all included participants was obtained. Outcome The outcome of this study is geriatric depressive symptoms at 14-year follow-up (depression versus nondepression) based on the scores of the Geriatric Depression

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Mohammed M. Althomali and Susan J. Leat

-analysis of data from individuals at least 60 years of age . Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 22 ( 1 ), 70 – 77 . doi:10.1097/00013614-200601000-00010 10.1097/00013614-200601000-00010 Bohannon , R.W. , Larkin , P.A. , Cook , A.C. , Gear , J. , & Singer , J. ( 1984 ). Decrease in timed

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Sandra C. Webber and Philip D. St. John

Activity monitors may not accurately detect steps in hospitalized older adults who walk slowly. We compared ActiGraph GT3X+ step counts (hip and ankle locations, default and low frequency extension [LFE] analyses) to the StepWatch monitor (ankle) during a hallway walk in 38 geriatric rehabilitation patients (83.2 ± 7.1 years of age, 0.4 ± 0.2 m/s gait speed). Absolute percent error values were low (<3%) and did not differ for the StepWatch and the GT3X+ (ankle, LFE); however, error values were high (19–97%) when the GT3X+ was worn at the hip and/ or analyzed with the default filter. Although these finding suggest the GT3X+ (ankle, LFE) functions as well as the StepWatch in detecting steps during walking in older adults with slow gait speeds, further research is needed to determine whether the GT3X+ is also able to disregard other body movements (e.g., fidgeting) that occur when full day monitoring is utilized.

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Morten Villumsen, Martin Gronbech Jorgensen, Jane Andreasen, Michael Skovdal Rathleff, and Carsten Møller Mølgaard

Lack of activity during hospitalization may contribute to functional decline. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the time spent walking during hospitalization by geriatric patients referred to physical and/or occupational therapy and (2) the development in time spent walking during hospitalization. In this observational study, 24-hr accelerometer data (ActivPal) were collected from inclusion to discharge in 124 patients at an acute geriatric ward. The median time spent walking was 7 min per day. During the first quartile of hospitalization, the patients spent 4 (IQR:1;11) min per day walking, increasing to 10 (IQR:1;29) min during the last quartile. Improvement in time spent walking was primarily observed in the group able to perform the Timed Up & Go task at admission. When walking only 7 min per day, patients could be classified as inactive and at risk for functional decline; nonetheless, the physical activity level increased significantly during hospitalization.

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April J. Chambers, Alison L. Sukits, Jean L. McCrory, and Rakié Cham

Age, obesity, and gender can have a significant impact on the anthropometrics of adults aged 65 and older. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in body segment parameters derived using two methods: (1) a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) subject-specific method (Chambers et al., 2010) and (2) traditional regression models (de Leva, 1996). The impact of aging, gender, and obesity on the potential differences between these methods was examined. Eighty-three healthy older adults were recruited for participation. Participants underwent a whole-body DXA scan (Hologic QDR 1000/W). Mass, length, center of mass, and radius of gyration were determined for each segment. In addition, traditional regressions were used to estimate these parameters (de Leva, 1996). A mixed linear regression model was performed (α = 0.05). Method type was significant in every variable of interest except forearm segment mass. The obesity and gender differences that we observed translate into differences associated with using traditional regressions to predict anthropometric variables in an aging population. Our data point to a need to consider age, obesity, and gender when utilizing anthropometric data sets and to develop regression models that accurately predict body segment parameters in the geriatric population, considering gender and obesity.

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Toge S.K. Johansson

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Nathan F. Johnson, Chloe Hutchinson, Kaitlyn Hargett, Kyle Kosik, and Phillip Gribble

Context: Falls and loss of autonomy are often attributed in large part to musculoskeletal impairments in later adulthood. Age-related declines in flexibility contribute to late adulthood musculoskeletal impairment. The novel sitting-rising test has been proposed to be a quick, effective screening of musculoskeletal fitness, fall risk, and all-cause mortality in older adults. The timed up and go and 5 times sit-to-stand tests are two of the 3 most evidence-supported performance measures to assess fall risk. Objective: This study aimed to determine if 5 weeks of flexibility training could increase sitting-rising test, timed up and go, and 5 times sit-to-stand scores in community-dwelling older adults. Participants: Forty-seven adults aged 60 years and older (mean age = 66.7 y, SD = 4.1) participated in this study. Participants completed a static stretching protocol consisting of 3 weekly 1-hour stretching sessions. Results: The protocol improved flexibility as seen in sit-and-reach scores and improved scores on all outcome variables. Specifically, there was a significant increase in sitting-rising test scores from preintervention (M = 7.45, SD = 1.45) to postintervention (M = 8.04, SD = 1.36), t(42) = −5.21, P < .001. Timed up and go scores demonstrated a significant decrease from preintervention (M = 8.85, SD = 1.32) to postintervention (M = 8.20, SD = 1.35), t(46) = 5.10, P < .001. Five times sit-to-stand scores demonstrated a significant decrease from preintervention (M = 12.57, SD = 2.68) to postintervention (M = 10.46, SD = 2.06), t(46) = 6.62, P < .001. Finally, significant increases in sit-and-reach scores were associated with improved functional performance (r = −.308, P = .03). Conclusion: Findings suggest that flexibility training can be an effective mode of low-level exercise to improve functional outcomes. Static stretching may help to improve musculoskeletal health, promote autonomy, and decrease mortality in community-dwelling older adults.

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Marcia S. Marx, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, and Jack M. Guralnik

The article describes the process of identifying 100 community-dwelling elderly adults at risk for physical disability, yet not functionally disabled, for participation in a research project to develop appropriate exercise programs for at-risk elderly. Over a period of 14 months, initial contact was made with 941 older adults, 11% of whom (101 people) were eligible for and willing to complete all stages of the study protocol. The most successful recruitment strategies were a mass mailing followed by a telephone call and advertising in a newspaper with a large circulation (rather than a local paper). Aspects of the recruitment and retention of study participants are discussed.

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Randall J. Bergman, David R. Bassett Jr., and Diane A. Klein

Background:

This 2-part study examined validity of selected motion sensors for assessing physical activity in older adults residing in assisted-living communities.

Methods:

Twenty-one older adults (mean age = 78.6 ± 13.1 years) wore the StepWatch 3 Step Activity Monitor (SW3) and the Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometer (DW). Part I compared accuracy of these devices for measuring steps taken over 161 m. Part II compared devices over a 1-day (24-hour) period.

Results:

In part I, the DW recorded 51.9% (r 2 = –.08, P = .75) and the SW3 recorded 102.6% (r 2 = .99, P < .001) of steps. In part II, the DW measured significantly fewer steps (1587 ± 1057 steps) than did the SW3 (6420 ± 3180 steps).

Conclusions:

The SW3 pedometer was more accurate in counting steps and recorded higher 24-hour step counts than the DW pedometer. Thus, the SW3 is a valid research instrument for monitoring activity in the assisted-living population.

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Robert G. McMurray, and Susan K. Veazey

The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of two submaximal exercise tests, the Sitting-Chair Step Test (Smith & Gilligan. 1983) and the Modified Step Test (Amundsen, DeVahl, & Ellingham, 1989) to predict peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in 28 adults ages 60 to 85 years. VO2 peak was measured by indirect calorimetry during a treadmill maximal graded exercise test (VO2 peak, range 11.6–31.1 ml · kg −l · min−1). In each of the submaximal tests, VO2 was predicted by plotting stage-by-stage submaximal heart rate (HR) and perceived exertion (RPE) data against VO2 for each stage and extrapolating the data to respective age-predicted maximal HR or RPE values. In the Sitting-Chair Step Test (n = 23), no significant differences were observed between measured and predicted VO2 peak values (p > .05). However, predicted VO2 peak values from the HR were 4.3 ml · kg−1 · min−1 higher than VO2 peak values predicted from the RPE data (p < .05). In the Modified Step Test (n = 22), no significant differences were observed between measured and predicted VO2 peak values (p > .05). Predictive accuracy was modest, explaining 49–78% of the variance in VO2 peak. These data suggest that the Sitting-Chair Step Test and the Modified Step Test have moderate validity in predicting VO2 peak in older men and women.