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Todd A. Gilson and Anthony Deldin

In the next 45 years it is estimated that individuals aged 65 and older will increase by 93% in the United States. This population will require a reexamination in thinking related to what retirement is and how seniors desire to maintain their quality of life. Thus, with this demographic shift, new career opportunities will be available for students in older adult fitness, and kinesiology graduates can be at the forefront of providing physical activity to promote public health. Through the exploration of an off-campus clinical exercise gerontology experience at Northern Illinois University, specifics of the program and potential barriers are discussed, with an eye toward assisting other institutions that wish to begin/enhance a similar program. Finally, benefits and future opportunities are highlighted showing how this partnership has led to an improved quality of life for seniors and strengthened relationships with the larger community.

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Hiroshi Shibata

In 1991 the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology launched a new longitudinal interdisciplinary study on aging (TMIG-LISA). The study is designed to run until at least 2001 and includes both an observation and an intervention component. The intervention component was started in 1996 and was designed to assess the extent to which it might be possible to retard the rate of the aging process and prevent geriatric diseases and chronic conditions. In this article, a brief overview of the aims, objectives, and design and some preliminary outcomes from the TMIG-LISA are presented.

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Liam D. Harper, Adam Field, Liam D. Corr, and Robert J. Naughton

. , Schwartz , A.V. , . . . Newman , A.B. ( 2006 ). The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: The health, aging and body composition study . The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61 ( 10 ), 1059 – 1064 . doi:10.1093/gerona/61

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Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Olga López-Torres, Álvaro Martos-Bermúdez, Lorena Rodriguez-Garcia, Marcela González-Gross, and Amelia Guadalupe-Grau

Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent supervised and unsupervised training program focused on muscle power to counteract the potential changes in sedentary behavior, disability, physical activity (PA), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic domiciliary confinement in prefrail older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Thirty-five older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were assigned to 2 groups according to their frailty status: exercise training group (prefrail or frail; n = 21; 74.7 [4.5] y; 33.3% male) and control group (robust; n = 14; 73.1 [3.9] y; 42.9% male). The exercise training group followed a multicomponent training program focusing on muscle power: supervised (5 wk) and unsupervised (6 wk). The primary outcomes, including PA and sitting time, perceived disability, and HRQoL, were assessed at the baseline and after 11 weeks. Results: At the end of confinement, there were significant decreases in PA in both groups (P < .05). Thus, sitting time increased more in the control group than in the exercise training group (P < .05). The HRQoL measures remained unchanged. Conclusions: Muscle power training before and during mandatory COVID-19 self-isolation in type 2 diabetes mellitus older adults (1) attenuates the COVID-19 domiciliary confinement-related increase in sitting time and (2) slightly decreases the self-reported levels of disability and maintains HRQoL.

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Seigo Mitsutake, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Shiho Amagasa, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Noritoshi Fukushima, Shigeru Inoue, and Koichiro Oka

Background: The present study examined the cluster of domain-specific sedentary behaviors (SBs) and their associations with physical function among community-dwelling older adults to identify the target groups that require intervention for SBs. Methods: A total of 314 older adults who participated in a population-based cross-sectional survey and an on-site functional assessment in Matsudo City in Chiba participated in this study. Participants were asked to report the daily average of 6 domain-specific SBs. To identify the cluster of domain-specific SBs, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using the Ward method. Analysis of covariance adjusted for sociodemographic factors, exercise habit, chronic disease, and total SB time was performed to examine the associations between each cluster and physical functional status. Results: The average age of the participants was 74.5 (5.2) years. The 4 clusters identified were leisure cluster, low cluster, work and personal computer use cluster, and television viewing cluster. The analysis of covariance adjusted for covariates showed that grip strength (P = .01), maximum walking speed (P = .03), and 1-leg standing time (P = .03) were significantly poorer in the television viewing cluster than other clusters. Conclusions: It has been concluded that the television viewing group identified as a high-risk group of physical functional decline; therefore, interventions targeting this group are needed to prevent physical functional decline.

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Renata M. Bielemann, Marysabel P.T. Silveira, Bárbara H. Lutz, Vanessa I.A. Miranda, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Soren Brage, Ulf Ekelund, and Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi

Background: Previous observations regarding association between physical activity (PA) and use of medicines among older adults are derived from self-reported PA. This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured PA and polypharmacy among older adults with multimorbidity in Southern Brazil. Methods: This study included 875 noninstitutionalized older people, aged ≥60 years. Prescribed medicines used in the 15 days prior to the interview, socioeconomic data, and the presence of comorbidities were self-reported. Accelerometers were used to evaluate PA following the interview. Results: Prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 medicines) was 38.3% (95% confidence interval, 35.0–41.5); those belonging to the lowest tertile of PA used more medicines. The authors observed a significant inverse association for polypharmacy between men belonging to the second and third tertiles of PA for objectively measured overall PA and light PA compared with the most inactive tertile. For women, the association between PA and polypharmacy was significant for overall, light, and moderate to vigorous PA only in the third tertile. Conclusions: Overall, light and moderate to vigorous PA were inversely associated to polypharmacy and differed by gender. Promotion of PA in older adults may be an effective intervention to reduce the number of medicines used independent of the number of comorbidities.

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Pirkko Markula, Bevan C. Grant, and Jim Denison

There has been a notable increase in research on aging and physical activity in recent years. Most of this research derives from the natural sciences, using quantitative methods to examine the consequences of the physically aging body. Although these investigations have contributed significantly to our knowledge, to further understand the complex meanings attached to physical activity we also need social-science research. The article explores how a variety of social scientists (positivisls, postpositivists, interpretive social scientists, critical social scientists, poststructuralists, and postmodernists) who use quantitative and qualitative methods approach physical activity and aging. Through examples from research on aging and physical activity, the authors highlight the differences, possibilities, and limitations of each research approach. Their intention is not to declare one research approach superior to any other but to increase awareness and acceptance of different paradigms and to encourage dialogue between those who study aging and physical activity from a variety of perspectives.

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Renata Valle Pedroso, José Maria Cancela, Carlos Ayán, Angelica Miki Stein, Gilson Fuzaro, José Luiz Riani Costa, Francisco J. Fraga, and Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz

Background: Evidence regarding the benefits of physical activity on the mental processing information of patients with Alzheimer’s disease assessed objectively is scarce and can be observed through event-related potentials, such as the P300. The aim of the study was to identify the effects of physical exercises on mental processing information in the elderly with Alzheimer’s disease through neurophysiological measures (P300 amplitude and latency) and reaction time. Methods: A total of 31 patients with Alzheimer’s disease participated in this study: 14 in functional exercise (FE) group and 17 in social gathering (SG) group who carried out three 1-hour sessions per week of FE and SG activities, respectively, for a 12-week period. All groups performed an auditory oddball task. A healthy elderly control group also participated. Results: Significant (P < .05) improvements were observed as a reduction of reaction time after intervention in the FE group (pre = 421.5 ms and post = 360.9 ms). Also, an increase of P300 amplitude at central midline (pre = 5.9 μV and post = 6.9 μV) and parietal midline (pre = 4.7 μV and post = 5.7 μV) was observed in the FE. Finally, a decrease in the P300 latency at frontal midline (pre = 377 ms and post = 367 ms) was observed in the SG after the intervention. Conclusion: Physical exercise decreases reaction time and suggests a recovery in cortical activity, whereas SG activities could probably facilitate information processing.

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Declan Ryan, Jorgen Wullems, Georgina Stebbings, Christopher Morse, Claire Stewart, and Gladys Onambele-Pearson

Background: Physical behavior [PB, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB)] can adjust cardiovascular mortality risk in older adults. The aim of this study was to predict cardiovascular parameters (CVPs) using 21 parameters of PB. Methods: Participants [n = 93, 73.8 (6.23) y] wore a thigh-mounted accelerometer for 7 days. Phenotype of the carotid, brachial, and popliteal arteries was conducted using ultrasound. Results: Sedentary behavior was associated with one of the 19 CVPs. Standing and light-intensity PA was associated with 3 and 1 CVP, respectively. Our prediction model suggested that an hourly increase in light-intensity PA would be negatively associated with popliteal intima-media thickness [0.09 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.03)]. sMVPA [moderate–vigorous PA (MVPA), accumulated in bouts <10 min] was associated with 1 CVP. 10MVPA (MVPA accumulated in bouts ≥10 min) had no associations. W50% had associations with 3 CVP. SB%, alpha, true mean PA bout, daily sum of PA bout time, and total week 10MVPA each were associated with 2 CVP. Conclusions: Patterns of PB are more robust predictors of CVP than PB (hours per day). The prediction that popliteal intima-media thickness would be negatively associated with increased standing and light-intensity PA engagement suggests that older adults could obtain health benefits without MVPA engagement.

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Declan J. Ryan, Jorgen A. Wullems, Georgina K. Stebbings, Christopher I. Morse, Claire E. Stewart, and Gladys L. Onambele-Pearson

Background: The aim of the study was to provide an isotemporal substitution model to predict how changes in physical behavior may affect the cardiovascular parameters (CVPs) of older adults. Methods: Participants wore a thigh-mounted accelerometer for 7 days. Phenotype of the carotid, brachial, and popliteal artery was conducted using ultrasound. Isotemporal substitution was used to simulate the degree to which replacing 1 hour of physical behavior with another would affect CVP. Results: Substitution of sedentary behavior with Standing and sporadic moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA accumulated in bouts <10 min) would reduce resting heart rate [−6.20 beats per minute (−12.1 to −0.22) and −3.72 beats per minute (−7.01 to −0.44), respectively]. Substitution of sedentary behavior with light-intensity physical activity would reduce carotid artery diameter [−0.54 mm (−1.00 to −0.07)]. Substitution of Standing with sporadic MVPA would increase popliteal artery diameter [1.31 mm (0.11 to 2.51)]. Conclusions: Our modeling suggests that an accumulation of MVPA bouts that are shorter than the recommended 10-minute minimum may still improve CVP, with lower intensity physical activity also influencing CVP. Our findings are a promising avenue for lifestyle interventions in older adults to reduce the aging effects on CVP for those who cannot engage or sustain sufficient MVPA.