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Todd A. Gilson and Anthony Deldin

In the next 45 years it is estimated that individuals aged 65 and older will increase by 93% in the United States. This population will require a reexamination in thinking related to what retirement is and how seniors desire to maintain their quality of life. Thus, with this demographic shift, new career opportunities will be available for students in older adult fitness, and kinesiology graduates can be at the forefront of providing physical activity to promote public health. Through the exploration of an off-campus clinical exercise gerontology experience at Northern Illinois University, specifics of the program and potential barriers are discussed, with an eye toward assisting other institutions that wish to begin/enhance a similar program. Finally, benefits and future opportunities are highlighted showing how this partnership has led to an improved quality of life for seniors and strengthened relationships with the larger community.

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Hiroshi Shibata

In 1991 the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology launched a new longitudinal interdisciplinary study on aging (TMIG-LISA). The study is designed to run until at least 2001 and includes both an observation and an intervention component. The intervention component was started in 1996 and was designed to assess the extent to which it might be possible to retard the rate of the aging process and prevent geriatric diseases and chronic conditions. In this article, a brief overview of the aims, objectives, and design and some preliminary outcomes from the TMIG-LISA are presented.

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Liam D. Harper, Adam Field, Liam D. Corr and Robert J. Naughton

. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61 ( 10 ), 1059 – 1064 . doi: 10.1093/gerona/61.10.1059 Hagman , M. , Helge , E.W. , Hornstrup , T. , Fristrup , B. , Nielsen , J.J. , Jørgensen , N.R. , . . . Krustrup , P. ( 2018 ). Bone mineral density

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Declan Ryan, Jorgen Wullems, Georgina Stebbings, Christopher Morse, Claire Stewart and Gladys Onambele-Pearson

Background: Physical behavior [PB, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB)] can adjust cardiovascular mortality risk in older adults. The aim of this study was to predict cardiovascular parameters (CVPs) using 21 parameters of PB. Methods: Participants [n = 93, 73.8 (6.23) y] wore a thigh-mounted accelerometer for 7 days. Phenotype of the carotid, brachial, and popliteal arteries was conducted using ultrasound. Results: Sedentary behavior was associated with one of the 19 CVPs. Standing and light-intensity PA was associated with 3 and 1 CVP, respectively. Our prediction model suggested that an hourly increase in light-intensity PA would be negatively associated with popliteal intima-media thickness [0.09 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.03)]. sMVPA [moderate–vigorous PA (MVPA), accumulated in bouts <10 min] was associated with 1 CVP. 10MVPA (MVPA accumulated in bouts ≥10 min) had no associations. W50% had associations with 3 CVP. SB%, alpha, true mean PA bout, daily sum of PA bout time, and total week 10MVPA each were associated with 2 CVP. Conclusions: Patterns of PB are more robust predictors of CVP than PB (hours per day). The prediction that popliteal intima-media thickness would be negatively associated with increased standing and light-intensity PA engagement suggests that older adults could obtain health benefits without MVPA engagement.

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Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Eduardo da Matta Mello Portugal, Luiz Felipe da Silva Figueiredo, Rodrigo Terra, Lara S. F. Carneiro, Vinícius Dias Rodrigues, Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento, Andrea Camaz Deslandes and Jerson Laks

Background: Inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins increase with aging, promoting a chronic low-grade inflammation. Studies have shown a positive effect of exercise on inflammatory markers in older persons. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are the main biomarkers investigated. However, it is unclear if exercise could decrease all these biomarkers. Purpose: The aim was to analyze the effect of chronic exercise on IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels in older persons. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were adopted. Original articles that investigated the effect of chronic exercise on inflammatory profile of the elderly persons were eligible for this review. The databases PubMed, PEDro, EBSCO, and BioMed Central were searched. Three reviewers evaluated each publication for reducing bias. Data about IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were collected and analyzed. A standardized mean difference based on estimated pooled effect size was calculated considering heterogeneity index (I 2) and random effect. Results: Seventy-six studies were retrieved from databases, and 8 of them were analyzed. IL-6 and CRP levels decreased after chronic exercise (overall effect P < .05). Conclusion: Regular exercise decreases IL-6 and CRP levels in older persons. The effect of exercise on TNF-α remains unclear.

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Melissa Raymond, Adele Winter and Anne E. Holland

Background:

Older adults undergoing rehabilitation may have limited mobility, slow gait speeds and low levels of physical activity. Devices used to quantify activity levels in older adults must be able to detect these characteristics.

Objective:

To investigate the validity of the Positional Activity Logger (PAL2) for monitoring position and measuring physical activity in older inpatients (slow stream rehabilitation).

Methods:

Twelve older inpatients (≥65 years) underwent a 1-hour protocol (set times in supine, sitting, standing; stationary and moving). Participants were video-recorded while wearing the PAL2. Time spent in positions and walking (comfortable and fast speeds) were ascertained through video-recording analysis and compared with PAL2 data.

Results:

There was no difference between the PAL2 and video recording for time spent in any position (P-values 0.055 to 0.646). Walking speed and PAL2 count were strongly correlated (Pearson’s r = .913, P < .01). The PAL2 was responsive to within-person changes in gait speed: activity count increased by an average of 52.47 units (95% CI 3.31, 101.63). There was 100% agreement for transitions between lying to sitting and < 1 transition difference between siting to standing.

Conclusion:

The PAL2 is a valid tool for quantifying activity levels, position transitions, and within-person changes in gait speed in older inpatients.

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Pirkko Markula, Bevan C. Grant and Jim Denison

There has been a notable increase in research on aging and physical activity in recent years. Most of this research derives from the natural sciences, using quantitative methods to examine the consequences of the physically aging body. Although these investigations have contributed significantly to our knowledge, to further understand the complex meanings attached to physical activity we also need social-science research. The article explores how a variety of social scientists (positivisls, postpositivists, interpretive social scientists, critical social scientists, poststructuralists, and postmodernists) who use quantitative and qualitative methods approach physical activity and aging. Through examples from research on aging and physical activity, the authors highlight the differences, possibilities, and limitations of each research approach. Their intention is not to declare one research approach superior to any other but to increase awareness and acceptance of different paradigms and to encourage dialogue between those who study aging and physical activity from a variety of perspectives.

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Declan J. Ryan, Jorgen A. Wullems, Georgina K. Stebbings, Christopher I. Morse, Claire E. Stewart and Gladys L. Onambele-Pearson

Background: The aim of the study was to provide an isotemporal substitution model to predict how changes in physical behavior may affect the cardiovascular parameters (CVPs) of older adults. Methods: Participants wore a thigh-mounted accelerometer for 7 days. Phenotype of the carotid, brachial, and popliteal artery was conducted using ultrasound. Isotemporal substitution was used to simulate the degree to which replacing 1 hour of physical behavior with another would affect CVP. Results: Substitution of sedentary behavior with Standing and sporadic moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA accumulated in bouts <10 min) would reduce resting heart rate [−6.20 beats per minute (−12.1 to −0.22) and −3.72 beats per minute (−7.01 to −0.44), respectively]. Substitution of sedentary behavior with light-intensity physical activity would reduce carotid artery diameter [−0.54 mm (−1.00 to −0.07)]. Substitution of Standing with sporadic MVPA would increase popliteal artery diameter [1.31 mm (0.11 to 2.51)]. Conclusions: Our modeling suggests that an accumulation of MVPA bouts that are shorter than the recommended 10-minute minimum may still improve CVP, with lower intensity physical activity also influencing CVP. Our findings are a promising avenue for lifestyle interventions in older adults to reduce the aging effects on CVP for those who cannot engage or sustain sufficient MVPA.

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Renata Valle Pedroso, José Maria Cancela, Carlos Ayán, Angelica Miki Stein, Gilson Fuzaro, José Luiz Riani Costa, Francisco J. Fraga and Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz

Background: Evidence regarding the benefits of physical activity on the mental processing information of patients with Alzheimer’s disease assessed objectively is scarce and can be observed through event-related potentials, such as the P300. The aim of the study was to identify the effects of physical exercises on mental processing information in the elderly with Alzheimer’s disease through neurophysiological measures (P300 amplitude and latency) and reaction time. Methods: A total of 31 patients with Alzheimer’s disease participated in this study: 14 in functional exercise (FE) group and 17 in social gathering (SG) group who carried out three 1-hour sessions per week of FE and SG activities, respectively, for a 12-week period. All groups performed an auditory oddball task. A healthy elderly control group also participated. Results: Significant (P < .05) improvements were observed as a reduction of reaction time after intervention in the FE group (pre = 421.5 ms and post = 360.9 ms). Also, an increase of P300 amplitude at central midline (pre = 5.9 μV and post = 6.9 μV) and parietal midline (pre = 4.7 μV and post = 5.7 μV) was observed in the FE. Finally, a decrease in the P300 latency at frontal midline (pre = 377 ms and post = 367 ms) was observed in the SG after the intervention. Conclusion: Physical exercise decreases reaction time and suggests a recovery in cortical activity, whereas SG activities could probably facilitate information processing.

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André Luiz Galvim, Isabela Martins Oliveira, Tatiane Vieira Martins, Leonardo Moreira Vieira, Natália Caroline Cerri, Natália Oiring de Castro Cezar, Renata Valle Pedroso and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

Background: One of the most important health determinants is social vulnerability, which can interfere in the practice of physical activity (PA). This study aimed at analyzing adherence to a PA program in a high social vulnerability context. Methods: A longitudinal study with a 6-month intervention period was conducted. The program offered monitored walks associated with behavioral change educational campaigns. Sociodemographic characteristics, occupation, PA level, noncommunicable chronic diseases, participants’ frequency of participation in the program, and intervention dropout reasons were evaluated. Descriptive and survival analyses were accomplished. Results: Among the 106 participants, 88.0% were female and 21.7% were older adults. The most mentioned participation reasons were health improvement (23.0%), weight loss (19.0%), disease control (17.0%), and social living (12%). The mean frequency of participation in the program was 27.4%. Dropout rate was 52.7%. The main reported reasons for dropping out were work hours (27.8%), health problems (25.9%), personal reasons (22.2%), and lack of time (11.1%). Factors associated with remaining in the program were being older adults and presenting body mass index <25 kg/m2. Conclusions: Results showed that in a high social vulnerability context, adherence to PA programs is low, and adult-life-related commitments and high levels of obesity are factors associated with lower adherence.