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Integrating a Clinical Exercise Gerontology Experience into a Kinesiology Curriculum

Todd A. Gilson and Anthony Deldin

In the next 45 years it is estimated that individuals aged 65 and older will increase by 93% in the United States. This population will require a reexamination in thinking related to what retirement is and how seniors desire to maintain their quality of life. Thus, with this demographic shift, new career opportunities will be available for students in older adult fitness, and kinesiology graduates can be at the forefront of providing physical activity to promote public health. Through the exploration of an off-campus clinical exercise gerontology experience at Northern Illinois University, specifics of the program and potential barriers are discussed, with an eye toward assisting other institutions that wish to begin/enhance a similar program. Finally, benefits and future opportunities are highlighted showing how this partnership has led to an improved quality of life for seniors and strengthened relationships with the larger community.

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An Overview of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology—Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging (TMIG-LISA, 1991–2001)

Hiroshi Shibata

In 1991 the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology launched a new longitudinal interdisciplinary study on aging (TMIG-LISA). The study is designed to run until at least 2001 and includes both an observation and an intervention component. The intervention component was started in 1996 and was designed to assess the extent to which it might be possible to retard the rate of the aging process and prevent geriatric diseases and chronic conditions. In this article, a brief overview of the aims, objectives, and design and some preliminary outcomes from the TMIG-LISA are presented.

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The Lifetime Fitness Program: Structured Physical Activity for Older Adults and Meaningful Experiential Learning for Kinesiology Students

Emerson Sebastião, Ashley M. Morgan, Kaitlyn P. Pawelczyk, and Jonathon W. Senefeld

for older adults: Position statement from the national strength and conditioning association . Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33 ( 8 ), 2019 – 2052 . 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003230 Gilson , T.A. , & Deldin , A. ( 2015 ). Integrating a clinical exercise gerontology experience

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The Physiological, Physical, and Biomechanical Demands of Walking Football: Implications for Exercise Prescription and Future Research in Older Adults

Liam D. Harper, Adam Field, Liam D. Corr, and Robert J. Naughton

. , Schwartz , A.V. , . . . Newman , A.B. ( 2006 ). The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: The health, aging and body composition study . The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61 ( 10 ), 1059 – 1064 . doi:10.1093/gerona/61

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The Relationship Between Attention and Gait in Aging: Facts and Fallacies

Roee Holtzer, Cuiling Wang, and Joe Verghese

The current study critically assessed the relationship between cognitive functions and gait in nondemented older adults. Quantitative measures of gait (velocity, cadence, and a coefficient of variance in stride length) were assessed in single and dual-task conditions. Three cognitive factors captured the domains of Executive Attention, Verbal IQ, and Memory. Linear regressions showed that Executive Attention was related to velocity in both walking conditions. However, Memory and Verbal IQ were also related to velocity. Memory was related to Cadence in both walking conditions. Executive Attention was related to the coefficient of variance in stride length in both walking conditions. Linear mixed effects models showed that dual-task costs were largest in velocity followed by cadence and the coefficient of variance in stride length. The relationship between cognitive functions and gait depends, in part, on the analytic approach used, gait parameters assessed, and walking condition.

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Validation of an Activity Monitor in Older Inpatients Undergoing Slow Stream Rehabilitation

Melissa Raymond, Adele Winter, and Anne E. Holland

Background:

Older adults undergoing rehabilitation may have limited mobility, slow gait speeds and low levels of physical activity. Devices used to quantify activity levels in older adults must be able to detect these characteristics.

Objective:

To investigate the validity of the Positional Activity Logger (PAL2) for monitoring position and measuring physical activity in older inpatients (slow stream rehabilitation).

Methods:

Twelve older inpatients (≥65 years) underwent a 1-hour protocol (set times in supine, sitting, standing; stationary and moving). Participants were video-recorded while wearing the PAL2. Time spent in positions and walking (comfortable and fast speeds) were ascertained through video-recording analysis and compared with PAL2 data.

Results:

There was no difference between the PAL2 and video recording for time spent in any position (P-values 0.055 to 0.646). Walking speed and PAL2 count were strongly correlated (Pearson’s r = .913, P < .01). The PAL2 was responsive to within-person changes in gait speed: activity count increased by an average of 52.47 units (95% CI 3.31, 101.63). There was 100% agreement for transitions between lying to sitting and < 1 transition difference between siting to standing.

Conclusion:

The PAL2 is a valid tool for quantifying activity levels, position transitions, and within-person changes in gait speed in older inpatients.

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Qualitative Research and Aging and Physical Activity: Multiple Ways of Knowing

Pirkko Markula, Bevan C. Grant, and Jim Denison

There has been a notable increase in research on aging and physical activity in recent years. Most of this research derives from the natural sciences, using quantitative methods to examine the consequences of the physically aging body. Although these investigations have contributed significantly to our knowledge, to further understand the complex meanings attached to physical activity we also need social-science research. The article explores how a variety of social scientists (positivisls, postpositivists, interpretive social scientists, critical social scientists, poststructuralists, and postmodernists) who use quantitative and qualitative methods approach physical activity and aging. Through examples from research on aging and physical activity, the authors highlight the differences, possibilities, and limitations of each research approach. Their intention is not to declare one research approach superior to any other but to increase awareness and acceptance of different paradigms and to encourage dialogue between those who study aging and physical activity from a variety of perspectives.

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Adherence, Adhesion, and Dropout Reasons of a Physical Activity Program in a High Social Vulnerability Context

André Luiz Galvim, Isabela Martins Oliveira, Tatiane Vieira Martins, Leonardo Moreira Vieira, Natália Caroline Cerri, Natália Oiring de Castro Cezar, Renata Valle Pedroso, and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

Background: One of the most important health determinants is social vulnerability, which can interfere in the practice of physical activity (PA). This study aimed at analyzing adherence to a PA program in a high social vulnerability context. Methods: A longitudinal study with a 6-month intervention period was conducted. The program offered monitored walks associated with behavioral change educational campaigns. Sociodemographic characteristics, occupation, PA level, noncommunicable chronic diseases, participants’ frequency of participation in the program, and intervention dropout reasons were evaluated. Descriptive and survival analyses were accomplished. Results: Among the 106 participants, 88.0% were female and 21.7% were older adults. The most mentioned participation reasons were health improvement (23.0%), weight loss (19.0%), disease control (17.0%), and social living (12%). The mean frequency of participation in the program was 27.4%. Dropout rate was 52.7%. The main reported reasons for dropping out were work hours (27.8%), health problems (25.9%), personal reasons (22.2%), and lack of time (11.1%). Factors associated with remaining in the program were being older adults and presenting body mass index <25 kg/m2. Conclusions: Results showed that in a high social vulnerability context, adherence to PA programs is low, and adult-life-related commitments and high levels of obesity are factors associated with lower adherence.

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Effects of Physical Exercise on the P300 of Elderly With Alzheimer’s Disease

Renata Valle Pedroso, José Maria Cancela, Carlos Ayán, Angelica Miki Stein, Gilson Fuzaro, José Luiz Riani Costa, Francisco J. Fraga, and Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz

Background: Evidence regarding the benefits of physical activity on the mental processing information of patients with Alzheimer’s disease assessed objectively is scarce and can be observed through event-related potentials, such as the P300. The aim of the study was to identify the effects of physical exercises on mental processing information in the elderly with Alzheimer’s disease through neurophysiological measures (P300 amplitude and latency) and reaction time. Methods: A total of 31 patients with Alzheimer’s disease participated in this study: 14 in functional exercise (FE) group and 17 in social gathering (SG) group who carried out three 1-hour sessions per week of FE and SG activities, respectively, for a 12-week period. All groups performed an auditory oddball task. A healthy elderly control group also participated. Results: Significant (P < .05) improvements were observed as a reduction of reaction time after intervention in the FE group (pre = 421.5 ms and post = 360.9 ms). Also, an increase of P300 amplitude at central midline (pre = 5.9 μV and post = 6.9 μV) and parietal midline (pre = 4.7 μV and post = 5.7 μV) was observed in the FE. Finally, a decrease in the P300 latency at frontal midline (pre = 377 ms and post = 367 ms) was observed in the SG after the intervention. Conclusion: Physical exercise decreases reaction time and suggests a recovery in cortical activity, whereas SG activities could probably facilitate information processing.

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Segregating the Distinct Effects of Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity on Older Adults’ Cardiovascular Structure and Function: Part 1—Linear Regression Analysis Approach

Declan Ryan, Jorgen Wullems, Georgina Stebbings, Christopher Morse, Claire Stewart, and Gladys Onambele-Pearson

Background: Physical behavior [PB, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB)] can adjust cardiovascular mortality risk in older adults. The aim of this study was to predict cardiovascular parameters (CVPs) using 21 parameters of PB. Methods: Participants [n = 93, 73.8 (6.23) y] wore a thigh-mounted accelerometer for 7 days. Phenotype of the carotid, brachial, and popliteal arteries was conducted using ultrasound. Results: Sedentary behavior was associated with one of the 19 CVPs. Standing and light-intensity PA was associated with 3 and 1 CVP, respectively. Our prediction model suggested that an hourly increase in light-intensity PA would be negatively associated with popliteal intima-media thickness [0.09 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.03)]. sMVPA [moderate–vigorous PA (MVPA), accumulated in bouts <10 min] was associated with 1 CVP. 10MVPA (MVPA accumulated in bouts ≥10 min) had no associations. W50% had associations with 3 CVP. SB%, alpha, true mean PA bout, daily sum of PA bout time, and total week 10MVPA each were associated with 2 CVP. Conclusions: Patterns of PB are more robust predictors of CVP than PB (hours per day). The prediction that popliteal intima-media thickness would be negatively associated with increased standing and light-intensity PA engagement suggests that older adults could obtain health benefits without MVPA engagement.