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Samantha J. Wilson, Bryan Christensen, Kara Gange, Christopher Todden, Harlene Hatterman-Valenti and Jay M. Albrecht

research on humans that examines light stretching during immobilization. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in calf girth, plantarflexor (PF) peak torque, and dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), when chronic static stretching was implemented during 2 weeks of ankle immobilization

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Eric Maylia, John A. Fairclough, Leonard D.M. Nokes and Michael D. Jones

Thigh girth is often used as an indicator of muscle hypertrophy or atrophy during the rehabilitation process following knee surgery. The measurement of thigh girth, using a conventional plastic tape measure, in an attempt to detect muscle hypertrophy or atrophy may be misleading. It is an inaccurate measure of thigh muscle bulk. Although the sample size is small, the results show that measurements are heavily biased by the expectations of observers, with the result that a considerable change in thigh girth is likely to be ignored.

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Thomas W. Balon, Jeffrey F. Horowitz and Karen M. Fitzsimmons

Bodybuilders have used different carbohydrate loading regimens in conjunction with resistance exercise prior to competition in the belief that this would result in increased muscle size. To investigate this possibility, muscle girth measurements were obtained from nine weight-trained males before and after a control (standard isocaloric diet) and an experimental trial (carbohydrate loading). The latter regimen consisted of 3 days of intense weight-lifting while the subjects ingested a diet of 10% carbohydrate (CHO), 57% fat (F), and 33% protein (P), followed by 3 days of light weight-lifting and a day of rest while ingesting a diet of 80% CHO, 5% F, and 15% P. The control trial consisted of an identical weight-lifting regimen while subjects ingested an isocaloric (45 kcal/kg BWIday) diet. Body weight and girths (forearm, upper arm, chest, thigh, waist, and calf) were obtained before and after each trial in a relaxed and flexed state. The results indicated that an exercise/carbohydrate loading regimen had no significant effect on muscle girth as compared to the control trial. It is concluded that CHO loading has no additional advantage to enhancing muscle girth in bodybuilders over weight-lifting alone.

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Michael D. Ross, Shelly Hooten and Darren Moore


To determine the relationship between asymmetries in lower leg girth and standing heel-rise after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.


Single-group posttest.


15 at a mean of 30 d after ACL reconstruction.


Lower leg girth and number of repetitions performed on the standing heel-rise test.


A significant decrease in lower leg girth and number of repetitions performed on the standing heel-rise test for the involved leg. There was also a low correlation between asymmetries in lower leg girth and standing heel-rise test (r = .25).


Ankle plantar-flexor endurance should be considered when developing rehabilitation programs for the early stages after ACL reconstruction. In this study the ankle of the involved leg attained a significantly smaller angle of maximal standing plantar flexion, suggesting that ankle range of motion should also be assessed. Caution should be used in predicting standing heel-rise asymmetries from asymmetries in lower leg girth in ACL-reconstructed patients.

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Susan L. Whitney, Larry Mattocks, James J. Irrgang, Pamela A. Gentile, David Pezzullo and Abdulazeem Kamkar

The purpose of this two-part study was to determine if lower extremity girth measurements are repeatable. Sixteen males and 14 females participated in the intra- and intertester reliability portion of this study. Girth was assessed at five different lower extremity sites by two physical therapists using a standard tape measure. Thirty measures (15 by each examiner) were collected on the subject's right leg, and a mean of the three measures was used in the analysis. The measurements were repeated 7 days later. It was found that by using a simple standardized procedure, girth measurements in the clinic can be highly repeatable in experienced clinicians. Part 2 of the study involved testing the right and left legs of 22 subjects to determine if girth of the right and left legs was similar. All subjects had their girth assessed at five sites on their right and left legs during one session. It was found that girth measures on the right and left lower extremities are comparable. In an acutely injured lower extremity, it might be assumed that the girth of both lower extremities is similar.

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Beth Hands and Helen Parker


Different approaches to measuring physical activity and fatness in youth have resulted in studies reporting relationships ranging from very strong to nonexistent.


The sample comprised 787 boys and 752 girls between the ages of 7 and 16 years. Pedometer-determined physical activity, height, weight, and waist girth measures were taken.


Significant differences were found in activity level between body mass index-determined weight categories for the girls (F 1,742 = 9.07, P = .003) but not for the boys (F 1,777 = 3.59, P = .06) and between truncal adiposity groupings for the boys (F 1,777 = 4.69, P = .03) and the girls (F 1,742= 13.56, P = .000).


The relationship between physical activity and body fatness differs according to the measure used and between boys and girls. Factors contributing to body fatness such as eating behaviors or sedentary activities might be more important among boys than girls.

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Gary L. Harrelson, Deidre Leaver-Dunn, A. Louise Fincher and James D. Leeper

The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intratester reliability of lower extremity circumference measurements obtained by two testers using the same tape measure and two different tape measures. Twenty-one male high school student-athletes participated in this study. Two testers measured lower extremity circumference at three sites using a standard flexible tape measure and a Lufkin tape measure with a Gulick spring-loaded handle attachment. Measurement sites were medial joint line, 20 cm above medial joint line, and 15 cm below medial joint line. Intraclass correlation coefficients were computed for inter- and intratester comparisons for each measuring device and each measurement site. Results indicated high reliability but a significant difference between the two tape measures. These findings indicate that the reliability of lower extremity circumference measurements is not influenced by tester experience and that the Lufkin tape measure with the Gulick handle attachment is the more accurate of the two tape measures.

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Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene and Younés Hachana

performance. Moreover, Sammoud et al ( 40 ) demonstrated that limb segment length ratio (arm ratio = arm span/lower arm) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = calf girth/ankle girth) were key to personal best butterfly swim speed in children and adolescent male and female swimmers. Based on the previously

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Erik H. Arve, Emily Madrak and Aric J. Warren

contraindicated, such as early postoperative phases of rehabilitation. Focused Clinical Question Is there evidence to suggest that BFR training improves strength, cross-sectional area (CSA), and thigh girth of the quadriceps musculature in patients after arthroscopic surgical procedures of the knee? Search

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Tomohiro Yasuda

power for lower body and limb muscles has been frequently evaluated by the use of upper leg 50% girth, 13 , 14 sit-to-stand test, 15 – 17 or standing long jump measurements, 18 , 19 because these measurements are also affordable, portable, simple, and time efficient. Recently, Yasuda and Ichikawa 20