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Benjamin M. Jackson, Ted Polglaze, Brian Dawson, Trish King and Peter Peeling

might be the global navigation satellite system (GNSS), a collective term used to encompass all satellite navigation systems providing geospatial positioning with global coverage. Currently, this includes both the United States–based GPS (n = 24) and the Russian-based GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation

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Pål Haugnes, Jan Kocbach, Harri Luchsinger, Gertjan Ettema and Øyvind Sandbakk

examined in the current study. Course and elevation profiles were determined with a Garmin Forerunner 920XT (hereafter Gar-920XT; Garmin Ltd, Olathe, KS) wrist watch, with both a global navigation satellite system and a built-in barometrical altimeter, and were used to define a reference course according

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Pål Haugnes, Per-Øyvind Torvik, Gertjan Ettema, Jan Kocbach and Øyvind Sandbakk

, Sandbakk Ø , Sperlich B , Stöggl T , Holmberg HC . Analysis of sprint cross-country skiing using a differential global navigation satellite system . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2010 ; 110 ( 3 ): 585 – 595 . PubMed ID: 20571822 doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1535-2 20571822 10.1007/s00421-010-1535-2 26

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, Matej Supej and Hans-Christer Holmberg

This study examined the influence of turn radius on velocity and energy profiles when skidding and step turning during more and less effective downhill turns while cross-country skiing. Thirteen elite female cross-country skiers performed single turns with a 9- or 12-m radius using the skidding technique and a 12- or 15-m radius with step turning. Mechanical parameters were monitored using a real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System and video analysis. Step turning was more effective during all phases of a turn, leading to higher velocities than skidding (P < .05). With both techniques, a greater radius was associated with higher velocity (P < .05), but the quality of turning, as assessed on the basis of energy characteristics, was the same. More effective skidding turns involved more pronounced deceleration early in the turn and maintenance of higher velocity thereafter, while more effective step turning involved lower energy dissipation during the latter half of the turn. In conclusion, the single-turn analysis employed here reveals differences in the various techniques chosen by elite cross-country skiers when executing downhill turns of varying radii and can be used to assess the quality of such turns.

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Cruz Hogan, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew Doyle, Leanne Lester and Peter Peeling

. Time to completion was recorded using a Global Navigation Satellite System device (Optimeye S5; Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia) fitted to the athlete’s boat. Athletes did not receive any real-time data during race performances. Training-Zone Determination Measures of PO, HR, and SR were