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Heidi R. Thornton, André R. Nelson, Jace A. Delaney, Fabio R. Serpiello, and Grant M. Duthie

Global positioning systems (GPS) are commonly used in team sports to quantify the movement patterns of athletes during training and competition. 1 GPS devices can provide a large number of movement variables including distance, speed, acceleration/deceleration, and metabolic power. 1 , 2 By

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Benjamin M. Jackson, Ted Polglaze, Brian Dawson, Trish King, and Peter Peeling

Global positioning system (GPS) devices are commonly used in elite-level team sports as a way of tracking player movements and quantifying workloads. 1 – 3 The data collected from GPS devices are important to coaches, athletes, and scientists, as they provide details about the movement patterns

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Anita Kulik, Ewelina Rosłoniec, Przemysław Madejski, Anna Spannbauer, Leszek Zguczyński, Piotr Mika, and Dorota Pilecka

the global positioning system (GPS) technology. Without a doubt, the greatest advantage of this tool for evaluating outdoor walking ability is the possibility to assess walking in a real-life environment without needing to accompany the participant. The investigator receives information about free

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Micah C. Garcia and David M. Bazett-Jones

by a global positioning system [GPS] device) on average, running distance could be underestimated or overestimated by −28% to +40%. 15 Wearable technology allows for objective measurement of running duration and distance using GPS enabled devices (eg, watches, smartphones). GPS watches were on

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Anna M.J. Iveson, Malcolm H. Granat, Brian M. Ellis, and Philippa M. Dall

context to physical activity data is the use of global positioning system (GPS) devices ( Kerr, Duncan, & Schipperijn, 2011 ), which use satellite tracking to assess the location of individuals at regularly sampled intervals. These data therefore have the potential to provide information about the

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Chelsea Steel, Katie Crist, Amanda Grimes, Carolina Bejarano, Adrian Ortega, Paul R. Hibbing, Jasper Schipperijn, and Jordan A. Carlson

; Saunders et al., 2013 ). More recently, device-based measures have been developed that can address some limitations and inaccuracies of self-report measures ( Prince et al., 2008 ). Device-based trip classification tools used in research have primarily involved wearable global positioning system (GPS

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Pulan Bai, Jasper Schipperijn, Michael Rosenberg, and Hayley Christian

accelerometry and Global Positioning System (GPS) units provide objective data on the locations where preschool children engage in physical activity. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can then be used to identify the type of locations and the distance from a participants’ home. The method of combining

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Sandra C. Webber and Michelle M. Porter

This exploratory study examined the feasibility of using Garmin global positioning system (GPS) watches and ActiGraph accelerometers to monitor walking and other aspects of community mobility in older adults. After accuracy at slow walking speeds was initially determined, 20 older adults (74.4 ± 4.2 yr) wore the devices for 1 day. Steps, distances, and speeds (on foot and in vehicle) were determined. GPS data acquisition varied from 43 min to over 12 hr, with 55% of participants having more than 8 hr between initial and final data-collection points. When GPS data were acquired without interruptions, detailed mobility information was obtained regarding the timing, distances covered, and speeds reached during trips away from home. Although GPS and accelerometry technology offer promise for monitoring community mobility patterns, new GPS solutions are required that allow for data collection over an extended period of time between indoor and outdoor environments.

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Ralph Maddison, Yannan Jiang, Stephen Vander Hoorn, Daniel Exeter, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, and Enid Dorey

This study aimed to describe the location and intensity of free-living physical activity in New Zealand adolescents during weekdays and weekend days using Global Positioning Systems (GPS), accelerometry, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Participants (n = 79) aged 12–17 years (M = 14.5, SD 1.6) recruited from two large metropolitan high schools each wore a GPS watch and an accelerometer for four consecutive days. GPS and accelerometer data were integrated with GIS software to map the main locations of each participant’s episodes of moderate-vigorous physical activity. On average participants performed 74 (SD 36) minutes of moderate and 7.5 (SD 8) minutes of vigorous activity per day, which on weekdays was most likely to occur within a 1 km radius of their school or 150 meters of their home environment. On weekends physical activity patterns were more disparate and took place outside of the home environment. Example maps were generated to display the location of moderate to vigorous activity for weekdays and weekends.

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Kathleen Meghan Wieters, Jun-Hyun Kim, and Chanam Lee


Responding to the growing interest in the environmental influences on physical activity, and the concerns about the limitations of self-report data, this study evaluates Global Positioning System (GPS) units for measuring outdoor physical activity.


Four GPS models were selected to test their accuracy related to adherence to an actual route walked, variations based on position of unit on user’s body, and variations against a known geodetic point. A qualitative assessment was performed using the following criteria: a) battery life, b) memory capacity, c) initial satellite signal acquisition time, d) ease of data transfer to other programs, e) wearability, f) ease of operation, g) suitability for specific study populations, and h) price.

Results and Conclusions:

The Garmin Forerunner provided the most accurate data for data points collected along a known route. Comparisons based on different body placement of units showed some variations. GlobalSat reported battery life of 24 hours, compared with 9–15 hours for the other units. The static test using ANOVA showed that the Garmin Foretrex’s data points compared with a geodetic point was significantly more accurate than the other 3 models. GPS units appear promising as a tool to capture objective data on outdoor physical activities.