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Robert A. Robergs, Susie B. McMinn, Cristine Mermier, Guy Leadbetter III, Brent Ruby and Chris Quinn

This study was conducted to compare blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormone responses to the ingestion of solid and liquid carbohydrate (CHO) during prolonged cycling, followed by 30 min of isokinetic cycling. Eight male cyclists randomly completed three cycling trials (LC = liquid CHO, SCE = solid CHO with water equal to LC, SCA = solid CHO + ad libitum water). Each subject cycled for 120 min at 65% of VO2max with CHO ingestion (0.6 g CHO/kg/hr) at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Subjects then completed a 30-min maximal isokinetic ride at 90 rpm. There was no significant (p < .05) difference between the trials for plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, glycerol, lactate, RER, HR, VO2 RPE, and total work performed during the isokinetic ride. However, serum glucose was significantly lower in the SCE and SCA trials compared to LC at 80 min. The ingestion of a solid food containing CHO. protein, and fat with added water produced similar blood glucose, metabolic, glucoregulatory hormone, and exercise performance responses to those seen with the ingestion of liquid CHO.

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Thomas D. Fahey, Karen Hoffman, William Colvin and Gregory Lauten

This study examined the effects of feeding a liquid meal during weight training on selected hormones and substrates. Ten male subjects were given a meal (MW) or nonnutritive placebo (W) before and intermittently during a 2-hr weight training session, and a meal before and intermittently during 2 hours of rest (M). Serum insulin increased from 12.2 ± 1.2 and 11.2 ± 1.3 before feeding to 37.2 ± 4.8 and 45.0 ± 5.0 mU · ml1 during exercise in MW and M, respectively, and remained elevated for 120 min. Insulin remained at resting levels in W throughout the experiment. Glucose increased from 5.20 ± 0.16 and 4.82 ± 0.20 before feeding to 6.23 ± 0.30 and 6.0 ±0.36 mmol 1−1 at the beginning of exercise in MW and M. Glucose declined during the first 15 min of exercise in MW and M but remained at or above resting levels for 120 min in MW. Lactate increased above 5.9 mmol · I1 in W and MW during exercise. Glucagon remained unchanged in all groups. Perceived exertion during exercise was 8.5±0.16 for MW and 8.3±0.18 for W. Feeding a liquid meal before and during weight training exercise can increase serum insulin and maintain blood glucose for a prolonged period.

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David S. Rowlands and Will G. Hopkins

The effect of pre-exercise meal composition on metabolism and performance in cycling were investigated in a crossover study. Twelve competitive cyclists ingested high-fat, high-carbohydrate, or high-protein meals 90 min before a weekly exercise test. The test consisted of a 1-hour pre-load at 55% peak power, five 10-min incremental loads from 55 to 82% peak power (to measure the peak fat-oxidation rate), and a 50-km time trial that included three 1-km and 4-km sprints. A carbohydrate supplement was ingested throughout the exercise. Relative to the high-protein and high-fat meals, the high-carbohydrate meal halved the peak fat-oxidation rate and reduced the fat oxidation across all workloads by a factor of 0.20 to 0.58 (p = .002–.0001). Reduced fat availability may have accounted for this reduction, as indicated by lower plasma fatty acid, lower glycerol, and higher pre-exercise insulin concentrations relative to the other meals (p = .04–.0001). In contrast, fat oxidation following the high-protein meal was similar to that following the high-fat meal. This similarity was linked to evidence suggesting greater lipolysis and plasma fat availability following high-protein relative to high-carbohydrate meals. Despite these substantial effects on metabolism, meal composition had no clear effect on sprint or 50-km performance.

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Linn Bøhler, Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Jens F. Rehfeld, Linda Morgan and Catia Martins

postprandial total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release ( Martins et al., 2010 ). It remains to be fully elucidated if the improvement in postprandial satiety seen in the previously described studies is due to exercise, WL (on average 3.5 kg), or a combination of both. These previous findings suggest that

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Sharon L. Miller, Carl M. Maresh, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Cara B. Ebbeling, Shannon Lennon and Nancy R. Rodriguez

The interaction of substrates and hormones in response to ingestion of intact proteins during endurance exercise is unknown. This study characterized substrate and hormone responses to supplementation during endurance exercise. Nine male runners participated in 3 trials in which a non-fat (MILK), carbohydrate (CHO), or placebo (PLA) drink was consumed during a 2-hour treadmill >· run at 65% V̇O2max. Circulating levels of insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, norepi-nephrine, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol were measured. Plasma substrates included glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, and select amino acids. Except for insulin and cortisol, hormones increased with exercise. While post-exercise insulin concentrations declined similarly in all 3 trials, the glucagon increase was greatest following MILK consumption. CHO blunted the post-exercise increase in growth hormone compared to levels in MILK. Free fatty acids and plasma amino acids also were responsive to nutritional supplementation with both CHO and MILK attenuating the rise in free fatty acids compared to the increase observed in PLA. Correspondingly, respiratory exchange ratio increased during CHO. Essential amino acids increased significantly only after MILK and were either unchanged or decreased in CHO. PLA was characterized by a decrease in branched-chain amino acid concentrations. Modest nutritional supplementation in this study altered the endocrine response as well as substrate availability and utilization following and during an endurance run, respectively.

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Keisuke Ueda, Yutaka Nakamura, Makoto Yamaguchi, Takeshi Mori, Masayuki Uchida and Satoshi Fujita

Although there have been many investigations of the beneficial effects of both exercise and amino acids (AAs), little is known about their combined effects on the single-dose ingestion of AAs for lipid metabolism during exercise. We hypothesize that taking a specific combination of AAs implicated in glucagon secretion during exercise may increase fat metabolism. We recently developed a new mixture, d–AA mixture (D-mix), that contains arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine to investigate fat oxidation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 10 healthy male volunteers were randomized to ingest either D-mix (3 g/dose) or placebo. Subjects in each condition subsequently performed a physical task that included workload trials on a cycle ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption for 1 hr. After oral intake of D-mix, maximum serum concentrations of glycerol (9.32 ± 6.29 mg/L and 5.22 ± 2.22 mg/L, respectively; p = .028), free fatty acid level (0.77 ± 0.26 mEq/L and 0.63 ± 0.28 mEq/L, respectively; p = .022), and acetoacetic acid levels (37.9 ± 17.7 μmol/L and 30.3 ± 13.9 μmol/L, respectively; p = .040) were significantly higher than in the placebo groups. The area under the curve for glucagon during recovery was numerically higher than placebo (6.61 ± 1.33 μg/L • min and 6.06 ± 1.23 μg/L • min, respectively; p = .099). These results suggest that preexercise ingestion of D-mix may stimulate fat metabolism. Combined with exercise, the administration of AA mixtures could prove to be a useful nutritional strategy to maximize fat metabolism.

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William A. Burgess, J. Mark Davis, William P. Bartoli and Jeffrey A. Woods

The effects of ingesting a low dose of CHO on plasma glucose, glucoregulatory hormone responses, and performance during prolonged cycling were investigated. Nine male subjects cycled for 165 min at ≈67% peak VO2 followed by a two-stage performance ride to exhaustion on two occasions in the laboratory. Every 20 min during exercise, subjects consumed either a flavored water placebo (P) or a dilute carbohydrate beverage (C). Blood samples were collected immediately before, every 20 min throughout, and immediately after exercise. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, lactate, free fatty acids (FFA), and various glucoregulatory hormones. VO2, RER, heart rate, perceived exertion, and exercise performance were also measured. Lactate, FFA, epinephrine, norepinephrine, ACTH, cortisol, and glucagon increased with exercise whereas glucose and insulin decreased (p≤05). Except for a small difference in glucose at 158 min of exercise and at exhaustion, no significant differences were found between drinks for any of the variabfes studied (p ≥ 05). Ingestion of 13 g carbohydrate per hour is not sufficient to maintain plasma glucose, attenuate the glucoregulatory hormone response, and improve performance during prolonged moderate intensity cycling.

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Penelope S. Larsen, Cheyne E. Donges, Kym J. Guelfi, Greg C. Smith, David R. Adams and Rob Duffield

Aerobic exercise (AE) and strength exercise (SE) are reported to induce discrete and specific appetite-related responses; however, the effect of combining AE and SE (i.e., combined exercise; CE) remains relatively unknown. Twelve inactive overweight men (age: 48 ± 5 y; BMI: 29.9 ± 1.9 kg∙m2) completed four conditions in a random order: 1) nonexercise control (CON) (50 min seated rest); 2) AE (50 min cycling; 75% VO2peak); 3) SE (10 × 8 leg extensions; 75% 1RM); and 4) CE (50% SE + 50% AE). Perceived appetite, and appetiterelated peptides and metabolites were assessed before and up to 2 h postcondition (0P, 30P, 60P, 90P, 120P). Perceived appetite did not differ between trials (p < .05). Acylated ghrelin was lower at 0P in AE compared with CON (p = .039), while pancreatic polypeptide (PP) was elevated following AE compared with CON and CE. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIPtotal) was greater following all exercise conditions compared with CON, as was glucagon, although concentrations were generally highest in AE (p < .05). Glucose was acutely increased with SE and AE (p < .05), while insulin and C-peptide were higher after SE compared with all other conditions (p < .05). In inactive, middle-aged men AE, SE and CE each have their own distinct effects on circulating appetite-related peptides and metabolites. Despite these differential exercise-induced hormone responses, exercise mode appears to have little effect on perceived appetite compared with a resting control in this population.

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José Moncada-Jiménez, Eric P. Plaisance, Michael L. Mestek, Lance Ratcliff, Felipe Araya-Ramírez, James K. Taylor, Peter W. Grandjean and Luis F. AragónVargas

Purpose:

This study investigated the effects of short-term dietary changes on metabolism and duathlon performance.

Methods:

Eleven men underwent a high-fat (HF; >65% fat from energy) or a high-carbohydrate (CHO; HC) diet (>60% CHO from energy). Energy intake was individualized, and commercially available foods were prepared and packaged for each participant 48 hr before they completed a laboratory-based duathlon (5-km run, 30 km cycling, and 10-km run). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after, and 1 and 2 hr after the duathlon for determination of glucose, insulin, and glucagon. Oxygen consumption, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and respiratory-exchange ratio were assessed, and fat and CHO oxidation were estimated before, during, and after the duathlon.

Results:

Dietary records indicated a significant difference in fat content ingested before the duathlons (p < .05). Time to complete the duathlon did not differ between the HC- and the HF-diet trials. CHO-oxidation rate was higher during the HC-diet trial than during the HF-diet trial (p = .006). Fat-oxidation rates were higher in the HF-diet trial than in the HC-diet trial (p = .001). No differences in RPE were found between dietary trials. Blood glucose concentration was higher immediately after the duathlon in the HC-diet trial than in the HF-diet trial and remained higher 1 and 2 hr after the duathlon (p < .05).

Conclusion:

Duathlon performance was not altered by short-term changes in dietary fat or CHO composition despite higher blood glucose concentrations under the HC condition.

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Daniela A. Rubin, Diobel M. Castner, Hoang Pham, Jason Ng, Eric Adams and Daniel A. Judelson

During childhood, varying exercise modalities are recommended to stimulate normal growth, development, and health. This project investigated hormonal and metabolic responses triggered by a resistance exercise protocol in lean children (age: 9.3 ± 1.4 y, body fat: 18.3 ± 4.9%), obese children (age: 9.6 ± 1.3 y, body fat: 40.3 ± 5.2%) and lean adults (age: 23.3 ± 2.4 y, body fat: 12.7 ± 2.9%). The protocol consisted of stepping onto a raised platform (height = 20% of stature) while wearing a weighted vest (resistance = 50% of lean body mass). Participants completed 6 sets of 10 repetitions per leg with a 1-min rest period between sets. Blood samples were obtained at rest preexercise, immediately postexercise and 2 times throughout the 1-hr recovery to analyze possible changes in hormones and metabolites. Children-adult differences included a larger exercise-induced norepinephrine increase in adults vs. children and a decrease in glucagon in children but not adults. Similarities between adults and children were observed for GH-IGF-1 axis responses. Metabolically, children presented with lower glycolytic and increased fat metabolism after exercise than adults did. Obesity in childhood negatively influenced GH, insulin, and glucose concentrations. While adults occasionally differed from children, amount of activated lean mass, not maturation, likely drove these dissimilarities.